Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Dóra KEREZSI, Tibor TARNÓCZI, Veronika FENYVES
 

In today’s accelerated world, competition amongst enterprises is becoming more and more intense. Challenges can only be met by companies that possess the information necessary for decision-making and are able to convert it rapidly into organisational knowledge. Decision-making based on inadequate knowledge further increases economic risks that are already high. In economic relations amongst enterprises, the annual financial statement is a very prominent source of information. Analysis and processing of the data represented by the published annual statement and its components (the balance sheet and profit and loss account) require the notes to the financial statement, which include information and explanations. The purpose of the notes to the financial statement is to introduce general informative data of the company and to provide complete textual explanation of entries within the balance sheet and profit and loss account, through which the financial and income situation of the company becomes clearly assessable for the external stakeholders. Apart from this, the notes to the financial statement have to create a reliable and realistic overall image. The notes to the financial statement are on the one hand based on legal regulations while on the other hand they depend on the specific properties of a given enterprise. Our research examines the opinions of economic experts and managers about the notes to the financial statement of the external stakeholders/businesses, which they come across in the decision-making process. For the study, a questionnaire survey was conducted; the target group were enterprises from different fields.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 6th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Information, Data, Financial statement, Questionnaire survey
  • Pages: 257-262
  • Received: 22th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 5th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Afrodita BORMA
 

This paper presents a synthesis of the changes that have taken place at the level of the Romanian food industry since the revolution in 1989 until present. The method used in the elaboration of the paper focuses on extensive documentation based on the viewing of several Romanian documentary films, media articles and statistical data collected by different official websites (Eurostat, NBRi, NISii, MARDiii) concerned with the subject addressed. The majority of the films under analysis present concrete examples of the issues that the Romanian food industry is faced with and the reasons that have led to the transformation of Romania from a producer into a merchant market for foods produced abroad. In the final part of the paper, I have highlighted two projects – initiated by Lidl and Kaufland – which although may, at a first glance, seem as timid initiatives, nevertheless constitute a first step towards the revival of domestic food products.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 29th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Food industry, Agricultural area, Hybrid seeds, Organic food
  • Pages: 257-262
  • Received: 4th September, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Mihaela IONESCU SAS
 

This article addresses aspects of competition in the European gas market and more precisely analyzes the abuse of Gazprom's dominant position by preventing the free flow of gas among the Member States of the European Union and by its unfair prices. In line with the European principle of freedom of movement for goods, services, persons and capital, the European Commission adopted three directives, approved in 1998, 2003 and 2009, by introducing competition on a market which had been closed down until then. From a macroeconomic perspective, there has been significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the liberalization of the European gas market has positive effects on the energy industry in terms of lower prices and security of supply. But the competition law in the European energy sector is not always properly applied and consumers are discouraged in terms of implementing the legislative and regulatory framework. In accordance with art. 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), EU countries importing natural gas must benefit from transparent, fair pricing contracts. However, in some cases, abusive practices have been used for gas importers in central and Eastern Europe.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 16th November, 2018
  • Keywords: Abuse of dominant position, Competition, Natural gas market, Regulation
  • Pages: 263-267
  • Received: 7th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th November, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Oana Simona HUDEA
 

Any economy goes through a cyclical evolution, the analysis of which makes the object of study of many specialists in the field, be they part of the macroeconomic decision organisms or simple researchers. Given both the existence of atypical economic cyclicities and the difficulties in correctly forecasting the impact force or even the influence direction, at macroeconomic level, of some key internal and external factors, the questions related to the expected evolution, from a macroeconomic perspective, are a continuous source of thorough analysis. The trend of the gross domestic product, the identification of the main elements determining such pattern, the trade balance, the budgetary deficit or the public debt are just some of the most important topics of research approached in order to anticipate the way an economy might evolve in the near or far future. This is also the intention of the authors of the current paper, who, based on the well-grounded pieces of information provided by the National Bank of Romania, via its financial stability reports, observed in the last five years, undertake to reveal the evolution registered in Romania during this period, as well as to forecast the direction in which the target country is going.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 11th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Economic growth, Gross domestic product, Trade balance, Budgetary deficit, Public debt
  • Pages: 269-274
  • Received: 15th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 9th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Constantin-Marius APOSTOAIE
 

As the impact of the global financial economic crisis of 2007/2008 diminished and the world economy began to recover, policymakers started to look towards new ways of attaining prosperity through sustainable, equitable and robust economic growth. To achieve this desiderate, the financial system (as the main provider of financial capital) had to fully embrace sustainability practices and integrate them in all its internal processes. Within the financial system, the banking sector is undoubtedly the main player. As such, banks also had to join the sustainable development wave. Hence, ‘green banking’ is becoming a central focus point for many researchers and practitioners as they provide various interpretations of the concept and highlight the best practices. The aim of this paper is twofold: to identify the role of financial regulation and regulators (mostly, Central Banks) in harnessing Green Banking and to determine the involvement of banking institutions in fostering Green Banking. It begins with unpacking the ‘Green Banking’ concept by revealing the most relevant (from a theoretical standpoint) and practical (considering its applicability in the real economy) approaches to date, in order to better grasp and fine-tune its meaning. After analysing qualitatively and critically the most important research papers and institutional reports to date, the paper provides the reader with the essential toolkit for moving forward with a more in-depth investigation on Green Banking.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 14th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Green banking, Green finance, Sustainability, Financial regulators, Banking institutions
  • Pages: 275-281
  • Received: 22th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 12th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Oana Simona HUDEA
 

The present paper analyses one of the most important and discussed economic topics, namely foreign direct investments, from the point of view of their possible theoretical contingency with the gross domestic product per capita, which up to a certain extent stand for the welfare of a nation. Out of the 28 belonging to the European Union, six countries, the lowest ranked in respect to this indicator, namely: Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Latvia, Hungary and Poland, are analysed from the perspective of net FDI inflows and FDI inflow share in GDP. The results are construed in comparison with one another. The paper reveals that there is indeed a connection between the level of GDP per capita, the level of net FDI inflows and the living standard of the population, although sometimes such results are not strongly confirmed.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 16th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investments, Gross domestic product, Public welfare, Investment-related macro-indicators, European Union
  • Pages: 283-289
  • Received: 19th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 14th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Florian GYULA LASZLO
 

The proposed research looks at the CRM business software concerning the new client management services in different companies and uses case studies. Although it is one of the least understood software programs CRM (customer relationship management) is one of the most useful business software programs that can help companies connect with customers or potential customers with more elements. The research underlines the changes necessary to maximize the benefits of customer relationship management. In order to extend the knowledge in this area the research is interdisciplinary. It uses a structural approach to model the determinants of organizational performances using CRM software analysis and to measure the complex relationships concerning risks in customer relationship management and different facets of organizational performances related to the benefit for customer relationship management.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: CRM software, Customer manament, Variables
  • Pages: 291-298
  • Received: 20th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Karen Miriam GONZÁLEZ FLORES, Judit KATONÁNÉ KOVÁCS
 

The creation of new businesses and the impulse of entrepreneurship culture have become an important objective in economies all over the world. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current literature in the field of entrepreneurship ecosystem: how the concept Entrepreneurship Ecosystem is defined; what factors are involved; who are the authors that support these factors. The research is exploratory and used different banks of scientific papers; 45 bibliographical references mainly published in specialized academic journals were reviewed starting from the year 1993 until September 2018. The research was carried out in two steps: the first focused on collecting definitions of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem concept using Google Academic, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Web of Science whereas the second step defined a list of factors identified in literature, which were sent to experts in the field in Europe, America, and Asia. The results which were discussed with the experts led to new research directions about the EE and its factors.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship ecosystems
  • Pages: 299-306
  • Received: 13th December, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Anca Maria CLIPA
 

This study takes into consideration the factors which influence negotiations related to the employment contract as well as the employees’ willingness to (re)negotiate with the same employer and with the same negotiation agent. The study was carried out on 240 Romanian IT employees and was based on their most recent employment contract negotiations. Logistic regression was the main research method used to test the factors affecting employees’ willingness for future negotiations. The research findings identified three subjective factors: relationship, process and result which impact employees’ willingness for future negotiations with the same company and even with the same agent, the employer's representative. The 4th subjective factor, the self, did not appear in our research. The present research also emphasized the role that trust in the employer plays in the employees’ willingness to renegotiate their contract.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Employment contract negotiation, Willingness to negotiate, Subjective value in negotiation, Trust in employer
  • Pages: 307-312
  • Received: 23th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina ȚIFREA, Valentin CRISTIAN, Raluca COSTACHE
 

In the context of automatization and cybernetization of human activities, in the contemporary age we can assert with certainty that sport is not oriented mainly towards performance and competition, but to new forms of motivation, such as loisir activities, affirmation of aesthetic values, social communication and so on. Physical exercise is an instrumental, thought-based and planned value-driven activity to achieve physical fitness and sports training items - muscle toning and muscle strength development, attribution and specialization of motor skills , development of motor skills and effort capacity etc. The protein consumption recommended for athletes practicing resistance training and those exercising strength exercises can oscillate between values of 1.2 grams per kilogram of body weight, reaching values of 1.7 grams per kilogram of body weight.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Nutrition, Management, Fitness
  • Pages: 313-315
  • Received: 15th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina ȚIFREA, Ben Salah HAYTHEM
 

People have always wanted ways of relaxation, recreation, competition, and so the games appeared, the individual or collective competitions that engage both competitors and spectators. The physical training of footballers plays an important role, as it determines the performance of athletes when they start training as well as in the competitions. Physical training is the starting point for the entire training process, being the pivot for all the other components of the training. The effort in the football game is long-lasting, mixed, aerobic-anaerobic with irregular interruptions and a wide range of actions characterized by the complex manifestation of all the motor, speed, force, strength, coordination and resistance qualities. The energy sources during play are in fact the three energy systems: alactacid, lactacid and aerobic, in different percentages.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Physical training, Football, Physiological evidence
  • Pages: 317-319
  • Received: 15th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina ȚIFREA, Dan Nicolae CRISTEA
 

The mission of higher education responds to the needs of education and training of the individual, but also to the social and economic development needs of the community. Access to higher education requires a balance between the capacity of the system and the size of the aspirations of individuals to education. As a result of the current observations and the practical findings during the teaching activity, I noted with concern that the level of development of the motricity and especially of the muscle strength in the student generations with which I worked was not at the desired level, the results obtained by the students in the tests of motorization within the assessment system is, on average, at Note 6 level. As a result, we aimed to naturally improve the biological potential of the university youth, with fundamental sides that condition the relaunch of the other educational sides (intellectual, moral, technological, professional), as well as its integration into the social life.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Higher education, Biological potential, Motricity, Fitness
  • Pages: 321-323
  • Received: 17th November, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina ȚIFREA, Ioana ROȘCULEȚ
 

Tennis is a sport for the young and the old, girls and boys; some practise it professionally and others practise it for pleasure or recreation. This game is made up of both rocket elements and procedures that are used in order to drive motor skills. Practising tennis positively influences the human body. Sustained tennis practice helps develop motor skills. Tennis helps develop the strength, speed, skill and body thus achieving a pleasant athletic figure. Physical training in tennis has a complex character given the effects produced on the body as a result of the effort made as well as by the methodology appropriate to the purpose aimed at. The popularity and importance of the topic in modern tennis is highlighted by the methodical, scientific and practical considerations that we think vital to the physical training of those who practice modern tennis at all levels of sport performance. The purpose of physical training in tennis is to continuously develop the motor qualities in connection with the specificity of the effort in official competitions, which explains the increasing use of scientific research, especially in the field of physiology, biochemistry, broad biomechanics, hygiene, dietetics, psychology and pedagogy.

  • Type: Research Proposal
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Performance tennis, Physical training, Motor skill
  • Pages: 325-333
  • Received: 20th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Mihai PANAIT, Anamaria GHERGHEL, Corina TIFREA
 

What it is about
The fundamental argument for placing movement in an educational context lies in the strong links that are developed alongside the major biological functions with psychological processes and especially with cognitive ones. Motric activity sustains life; it is a means of survival, of adapting the human being to the environment and a factor contributing to cultural, social and economic progress.
What we propose
• Detection of postural deficiencies in children from the 3rd to the 4th grade through screening in schools.
• The early detection of postural deficiencies and the creation of a prevention program in order to improve the postural attitude of the person and their successful integration into the labour market in the long-term.
The reasearch method is experimental, which is a multilateral system of reality knowledge using “experimental reasoning, which processes facts from observations and experiment”.
Who would benefit and in what ways
The students in the research will benefit from a postural evaluation made with specialized equipment, which is impossible in schools at the moment due to a lack of means to appreciate the postural attitude in medical clinics.
Conclusions
The postural deficiencies in children, found and not treated at the right moment, are the main reasons for the deformations in adult age, which affect the economical and social output of a large part of the active citizens.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Posture, Prevention, Motion, Economic impact
  • Pages: 335-337
  • Received: 24th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina TIFREA, Raluca COSTACHE
 

Principles relating to periodization of training, separation of training in different cycles through variation in specificity, intensity and volume, can be applied to nutritional and dietary consumption. Nutritional needs vary depending on the training periods: training, competition, off-season and the transition between these periods. Long jumps need speed, power and a wide variety of technical skills to be successful in their events. The objectives of the periodicity training cycle should be consistent with nutrition for these athletes, including reaching the desired body weight and a height-to-weight ratio between body weight and body height and improving muscle strength. A long-distance jumper turns the movement into flight, using powerful legs and elastic take-off. The triple- jump jumper requires a precise approach, producing kinetic energy from an almost near-speed approach. Energy needs vary depending on training, competing, and transition periods. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Proteins provide energy, but should be eaten in an amount that responds to amino acid needs for the formation and fluctuation of body proteins, letting fat supply energy.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Skaters, Periodization, Training cycle, Carbohydrates
  • Pages: 339-341
  • Received: 30th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Corina ȚIFREA, Ben Salah HAYTHEM
 

The methodical procedures used in the process of learning and improving the football game are those of the general pedagogy, adapted to the particularities of the football game. These are the concrete ways of approaching the game factors, with the purpose of drawing the main pedagogical, physiological and psychological directions of the training activity, giving them an appropriate framework to achieve the proposed objectives. General physical training methods can all be used to develop motricity skills, especially those aimed at strength, as well as those for physical development and motricity.The effects of the long-lasting effort, especially of the one achieved through running, are numerous and they result in improvements in physical, functional and organic potential and, at the same time, by enhancing both general and peripheral metabolism, they favor recovery processes, eliminate toxic substances resulting from the overall workout and gaming effort.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Physiology training, Football, High erformances
  • Pages: 343-346
  • Received: 30th October, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Veronika FENYVES, Krisztina DAJNOKI, Éva BÁCSNÉ BÁBA
 

The Annual Campus Festival is among the summer music festivals in Hungary targeting higher education students that attracts large crowds. The organisers of the festival pay special attention to boosting visitors’ interest in sport and music events: the Campus Sport Festival takes place annually to promote sport and give higher education students, fans and participants from Hungary and abroad (Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) the opportunity to forge relationships and socialize. Based on the results of a survey in 2017, this study describes the sporting activities organised on such occasions and examines higher education students’ motivation to participate in the festival. The focus is on comparing the opinions of foreign students. The analysis carried out by SPSS used the Pearson’s Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test to find out the differences among students.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Sport festival, Higher education students, Recreational sport, Sport
  • Pages: 347-353
  • Received: 14th December, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Sergiu TEODORESCU, Aurelia PREDA
 

Could Hippocrates be an ancestor of the nursing profession? The nursing profession brings into practice, in addition to spiritual care, a palpable method of self-healing. The history of medicine, which cannot be separated from the act of nursing and the history of nursing are part of the human history. Practiced from prehistoric times, the art of nursing is universal and can be considered a law of nature. Its recognition as a "useful and unique" profession began in the second half of the 20th century, when "the art of nursing" started to be influenced by the cultural, ethnic and religion specificities of the different ethnic groups.

  • Type: Perspective, opinion and commentary
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Antiquity, History, Nursing
  • Pages: 355-359
  • Received: 6th June, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Oana Ramona LOBONȚ, Roxana BUCUREAN
 

The current study aims to assess the social value of refractive surgery services in the Romanian-Serbian cross-border region (border of the European Union). Refractive errors (Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Presbyopia) are the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide, decreasing the quality of life and the productivity of a large percentage of the population. Lately, modern surgical techniques that allow the correction of refractive errors have become available in the more developed regions of the world. However, refractive surgery services require important financial investments in modern medical equipment and the training of the medical personnel. Such allocations are also necessary in the public healthcare system in the Romanian-Serbian cross-border region but they have to be based on feasibility studies. The cost benefit analyses included in the feasibility studies need benchmarks for the conversion of social effects into funds. The current research employs the contingent valuation method for the estimation of a benchmark (applied on 210 patients).

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Refractive surgery, Investment, Feasibility study
  • Pages: 361-368
  • Received: 15th December, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Ionela MANIU, George MANIU, Bogdan NEAMȚU
 

The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive review of existing patient-reported outcome measures used in headache disorders and migraine. We identified different instruments used by health care professionals and researchers in different situations with patients suffering from headache and migraine disorders such as assessment, management, quality of life, comorbidities, treatment/therapy. We also looked at the benefits of using these instruments, actual trends and measurement practices in developing new PROMs (Patient-reported outcome measures) as well as modern digital technologies (ePROMs, day-to-day tracking apps, online programs, mobile applications, smart portable devices) which facilitate data collection and analysis.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Headache, Migraine, PROM, Questionnaire
  • Pages: 369-378
  • Received: 17th December, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 18
Oana Ramona LOBONȚ, Roxana BUCUREAN
 

The current paper proposes a methodology of cost – benefit analysis for investments in the field of refractive surgery over the Romanian-Serbian cross-border region. While refractive surgery services have the potential of generating financial gains for the investor, they can also generate significant social impact. When the investments are made from public funds, the net social benefits are usually targeted. Although the potential impact of such an investment over the quality of life of the local population is important, a feasibility study is mandatory as a basis for the decision to allocate the necessary funds. Through a previous research, we established a benchmark for the conversion of the net social benefits of refractive surgery into monetary form. Through the current article, we propose a way of integrating the converted net social benefits into a cost – benefit analysis. The proposed methodology can be used in feasibility studies over the Romanian-Serbian cross-border region and can easily be adapted to other regions.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th December, 2018
  • Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Refractive surgery, Investment, Feasibility study
  • Pages: 379-386
  • Received: 15th December, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th December, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Tibor TARNÓCZI, Veronika FENYVES
 

In their article, the authors emphasize the importance of measuring intellectual capital. The difference between the company's market and book value is intellectual capital, which has been present within knowledge-based society for decades. A number of economists have made suggestions related to its measurement; however, no unified standpoint has been developed. Therefore, currently its value does not appear in financial statements. The reason for this is the fact that while the recorded book value of enterprises is tangible, the value of intellectual capital is difficult to quantify, it is a so-called hidden value. In the scope of their study, the authors discuss the relevance of measuring intellectual capital by describing their results provided by Baruch Lev's knowledge capital valuation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th June, 2018
  • Keywords: Intangibles, intellectual capital, Human capital, Relational capital, Organizational capital, Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC)
  • Pages: 137-150
  • Received: 17th May, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 4th June, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Daniel Dumitru LEON
 

Tourism is currently one of the sectors with the most important growth potential, alongside the IT sector. A healthy tourism sector is beneficial to a country's economy, because it contributes directly to employment, contributes to the creation of added value and, last but not least, helps balancing the balance of payments. Romania is considered to be a country with a huge touristic potential, but unfortunately we do not really know how to value it. In this article I will determine what is the evolution of the financial performances of the entities in the tourism industry. Thus, in order to achieve this study, I will apply a series of performance indicators on 5 companies that are active in the tourism industry, for the time period 2012 -2016, companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. I will try to determine the current situation with regard to the financial performance of these entities, as well as the main factors that directly influence these increases.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th June, 2018
  • Keywords: Tourism industry, Turnover, Profit net, Employees, Correlations
  • Pages: 151-158
  • Received: 1st May, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 4th June, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Corina ȚIFREA, Raluca COSTACHE, Andreea IONEL
 

Due to the special attention it receives in society, sport has ceased to be a preoccupation like any other and started having a separate place in people's minds. As a consequence, sport marketing is also a hub of interest for both researchers and practitioners. Marketing in sport is one of the highly researched themes in the literature, noting the existence of a wide range of scientific journals devoted to this subject. The question that still raises debates is whether marketing of sport should be a distinct case of marketing or marketing remains the same irrespective of the product to which it is applied, whether it is sports, the sale of consumables, insurance, medicine, agro-food industry and others . It is less important which approach prevails, since it is essential for marketing to add value to the brand of the sports organization that practices it. A lot of people and organizations represent a part of the sport world, entering reciprocal relationships, from which value is produced, being offered to the market in the form of different products: matches, meetings, struggles, athletes (products of clubs where they are legitimate, as well as their instructors and the rest of the staff), palpable goods bearing their favorite club or athlete logo, such as balls, shirts or any other type of sports equipment, sports television shows, newspapers and specialised magazines, online platforms, music, movies and more.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th June, 2018
  • Keywords: Sports marketing, Sports brands, Sports sector
  • Pages: 159-161
  • Received: 23th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 4th June, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Loredana MITARIU, George Constantin MANIU
 

The purpose of this study is to present the results obtained in the base of the opinion of 95 children from general schools of Sibiu city in Romania, collected during a survey regarding emotional reactivity (arousal) and regulatory capacity (control) in early adolescence. Data were stratified by BMI in order to analyze the relationship between obesity and emotional arousal and control in case of young adolescents. A 30-item self-reporting multidimensional instrument HIF (How I Feel) created by Walden, Harris & Carton in 2003 was used. The questionnaire items refer to five different emotions: happy, sad, excited, scared and mad. Significant differences between the three subgroups (normal weight, overweight and obese) were observed for the following questionnaire items: happy and excited from position emotions subscale; sad, mad from negative emotion subscale. In case of emotion control subscale no significant differences between subgroups have been identified althow higher values were observed in the case of overweight and obese (compared to normal weight) for almost all of the subscale items. The use of HIF instrument in conjunction with other measures could provide a more comprehensive assessment of emotional functioning and different disorders in children and adolescents.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 15th June, 2018
  • Keywords: Pediatric, Emotional arousal, Emotional control, Overweight, Obese
  • Pages: 163-169
  • Received: 2nd April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 10th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Anamaria-Cristina ANDREI, Irene-Elena PAPUC
 

The specialized legislation on the regulation of public services reflected the specifics of each historical period. Public service is a complex notion, subject to evolution that has given rise over time to many contradictory discussions, being at the same time an essential notion for administrative law.Presenting the foundations of democracy, Aristotle outlined suma divisio between civil society, which relates to private interests, and the political society that defends "general utility" and "common good”.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 21th June, 2018
  • Keywords: Administrative law, Citizen, Public service, Public utility, Regulations
  • Pages: 171-175
  • Received: 27th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 28th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Elena RUSE
 

Audit risk is the risk of expressing an inappropriate audit opinion with reference to financial statements that are materially misstated. Risks exist but the audit objective is to mitigate the audit risk to an acceptable level. The process of auditing the annual financial statements involves a series of stages until the opinion is expressed and during the audit, the materiality threshold and the audit risk are analyzed together. There is a link between the professional judgment used by the auditor during the course of the mission, the auditor's perception of the financial information needs of the users of the financial statements, and the general significance threshold for the overall financial statements. Particular attention will be paid to managing risks by management within the organization. Each organization has a responsibility in managing risks up to the acceptable level (risk tolerance). The auditor will apply risk assessment procedures and the evaluation of the results is based on the assessment of the probability of their materialization and the impact of the risk.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 10th July, 2018
  • Keywords: Audit risk, Materiality threshold, Risk tolerance, Auditor’s perception, Professional judgement
  • Pages: 177-181
  • Received: 4th May, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th July, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Ion Gr. IONESCU
 

The present study is the fruit of the research and represents a very small part of a serious and of reference work called Economic History, that stretches temporally, over a period, starting from the oldest times, until Romania's accession to the European Union. The main purpose, stated, is not to list facts in chronological order, but to bring to light, relevant aspects from which to draw pertinent conclusions to become a guideline on the aspects faced by human communities, in everyday life, about what can happen in a society, over time. The First Industrial Revolution, with its beginnings, is a great landmark in the fundamental becoming of the human society. The research methods used are mainly, the deductive (hypothetical-deductive) and the analogy, also, the objectivity and the goal I pursue is truth. In fact, in the present study, we have briefly debated, two complementary aspects, namely, the roots of the first industrial revolution, in its beginning stage and then, the general features of the global economy, as a result of the revolution.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 22th July, 2018
  • Keywords: Middle Ages, Hydraulic energy, Industrial revolution, Export, Tarrifs
  • Pages: 183-186
  • Received: 16th June, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th July, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Ildikó ORBÁN, Ágota KISS
 

International Financial Reporting Standards (hereinafter referred to as IFRS) are the collection of accounting standards published by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) which enables the legislators to establish a framework for the individual financial reporting. Out of standards by IASB, the application of standards adopted by the EU is mandatory for Member States. The EU introduces its supported standards in its legal system through regulations. As a result of the harmonization of law, Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19th July 2002 on the application of international accounting standards has been in force since 14th September 2002. The Regulation required all companies listed on the European Union's stock exchange to prepare their consolidated financial statements as of 1st January 2005 in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. According to the EU’s standpoint, this requirement increases transparency and comparability of corporate financial statements and, as a result, increases market efficiency in the EU, reduces capital cost to companies, thereby improves competitiveness and increases growth (1606/2002 /EC). Under the Regulation, in addition to binding rules, Member States may allow or require the application of IFRSs adopted by the European Union in the compilation of individual or consolidated financial statements of unlisted companies in the EU or in the compilation of individual accounts of EU listed companies. Thus, in recent years, more and more Member States have permitted or have made compulsory the preparation and publication of individual financial statements based on IFRS principles. Hungary tries to enlarge the business scope the obligation and possibility of the IFRS adoption for individual reporting purposes. In this article we would like to represent the process of this adoption under Hungarian conditions.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 8th September, 2018
  • Keywords: IFRS, International accounting, Adoption, IFRS 1
  • Pages: 187-192
  • Received: 31th May, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 3rd September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Andra Maria ACHIM (NAȘCA)
 

The quality of the accounting information is determined by many factors - internal and external to the firm. In this paper we focus on the strength of auditing and reporting standards (SARS), that is considered one of the influencing factors of financial reporting quality. Recently, more and more countries around the world choose to apply International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Thus, the power of these standards is essential, because only with a comprehensive set of rules, clearly regulated and understood by their users, the effectiveness of these standards can be guaranteed. Our main objective is to analyse the strength of auditing and reporting standards theoretically and to describe its determinants. This paper contributes to the literature regarding the determinants of SARS and is relevant for several categories of users of financial information.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 8th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Financial reporting, Auditing and reporting standards, Accounting quality
  • Pages: 193-197
  • Received: 31th July, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 3rd September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Judit OLÁH, Tamás HARMAN, József POPP
 

Warehouse management has witnessed widespread and rapid development in recent years. This is due to the increasingly complex logistics processes as well as to the dynamic and spectacular development of warehouse design and operation. The smooth functioning of the stock and the warehouse plays a very important role in the life of every production company, so it is imperative to continuously review processes and to apply new procedures to increase efficiency. Results: When storing the phase products, the speed of the internal material flow processes, including the rate of storage, must always be proportional to the output of warehouses. Likewise, the storage capacity of the warehouse must correspond to the input needs of the areas it supplies. The constantly changing needs can be balanced by inserting buffers. In addition, storage capacities must be prepared in advance for changing space needs. Thus, in one year, the 64-36% removal ratio between the previous 2 warehouses changed to 56-44%, due to changing trends. This requires regular monitoring of the forecasts and management of the inventory strategy to be followed. Conclusion: During our research we have found that by updating the data quarterly, we can ensure the proper distribution of stock and optimum utilization of warehouses.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 9th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Warehouse management, Storage system, Delivery ratio, Box and pallet automatic warehouse
  • Pages: 199-210
  • Received: 26th June, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 3rd September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Teodora Mihaela TARCZA, Marcela NEMȚEANU SEFORA
 

Traditional food products tend to be a subject of real interest for researchers as well as for producers, consumers and local / national authorities. Since 1996, when EU has initiated the attestation and registration of these products, their popularity is continuously growing between EU consumers and not only them. The main purpose of the present paper is to identify a series of possible correlations that consumers and / or potential consumers are making regarding the Traditional Food Products in Romania. In order to reach our objective, we used the “free word association method”, by applying face-to-face questionnaires, to a number of 148 respondents. The use of projective technique as research method, allowed us to reveal ideas that consumers expressed regarding the name, taste or aspect of traditional food products. The results provide new words, information that food producers and marketing specialists can use in order to create the message or the insight of a promoting campaign.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 10th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Traditional food, Romania, Free-word association, Consumers’ perception, Insight
  • Pages: 211-219
  • Received: 1st August, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 5th September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Afrodita BORMA
 

This paper discusses a topical problem related to the issue of food integrity at the level of EU Member States. The method used to draw up the paper is the documentation based on the official websites of the EU Institutions (the European Commission, the European Parliament) and those at national level (MARD) presenting the approaches taken by them to remedy the situation regarding the double standard of food products marketed in different EU Member States. Furthermore, the articles used for the paper discuss concrete examples that show the difference in quality between the products marketed in Central and Eastern European countries as compared to those in the West. Thus, the paper addresses issues related to: the effects of the marketing of fraudulent products; concrete examples of non-authentic products encountered at national and international level, as well as the steps taken to combat food fraud. The final part of the paper presents some recommendations which could result in a reduced production/marketing of food products that do not comply with the „original recipes”.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Food fraud, Food integrity, The Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs, The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
  • Pages: 221-227
  • Received: 11th August, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 17
Alexandra Luciana GUTA
 

The paper explores the concept of organizational learning capability among Romanian universities and links it to performance on education. The research aims at determining the components of organizational learning capability, based on a scale from literature, that is translated and adapted. For performance on education a scale is proposed by the author. The study comprises part of Romanian universities and is based on 357 valid questionnaires from teachers/ researchers. Exploratory factor analysis was applied and four components have resulted for organizational learning capability: participative decision making; experimentation and risk taking; dialogue; interaction with the external environment. Three components have resulted for performance on education: customers/ beneficiaries perspective; learning and development perspective; internal processes perspective. Correlations between the components that resulted for the construct „organizational learning capability” and components for the construct „performance in education” are analysed.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th September, 2018
  • Keywords: Organizational learning capability, Universities, Performance on education
  • Pages: 229-240
  • Received: 21th August, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th September, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Andrea GERGELY, Andrea RÓZSA
 

Official list of top500 companies according to annual revenue and net profit is provided and publicized in Hungary every year by contribution of international data service corporations as Bisnode or Creditreform. The reliability of these orders can be controlled through corporate information database of Opten or Central Statistical Office. The main purposes of this study is to identify the most important leading companies of Hungarian food industry on the basis of revenue and net profit after tax orders and to analyse financial features and changes of these in period of 2010-2015. The main focus is on the investigation of capital structure, solvency and profitability (particularly return on equity) using financial indicators. Our hypothesis is that the accompanies of leading position both in revenue and net profit are safe capital structure (low debt and loan ratio), stability in solvency and positive equity risk premium. The research is based on official annual reports, relevant macroeconomic data and international literature of financial analysis.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 9th January, 2018
  • Keywords: Hungarian food industry, Financial analysis, Equity risk premium
  • Pages: 7-19
  • Received: 18th November, 2017
  • Final revision and acceptance: 7th January, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Maria TATARUSANU, Corneliu IATU
 

The article describes the main theoretical framework concerning the interpretation of the cultural tourism heritage, by emphasizing the principles of the interpretation, its role in the present challenges created by the tourism development in the new globalized world. The tourism demand trends show that there is an increasing of the numbers of visitors who desire to understand the past, the old cultures, to learn about different cultures and local communities’ way of living, about the architecture and history at the destination. In this context, the interpretation of the cultural heritage has to be appropriated to this democratization of cultural tourism and also to take into account the new technologies which can contribute to achieving the goals of a sustainable tourism.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 10th January, 2018
  • Keywords: Interpretation of the cultural heritage, Tourism, Visitors, Globalization, New technologies
  • Pages: 21-25
  • Received: 17th December, 2017
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th January, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Rendra WIDYATAMA
 

Generally, in every country, there is supervision of the television broadcasting system. In Indonesia, all television broadcasting is supervised by the Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia/KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission). This commission oversees broadcast television, to ensure all TV broadcasts in Indonesia comply with government regulations. Often the KPI imposes sanctions, but frequent violations still occur. This article describes the results of research on the contradiction between business interests and ethics in the television industry in Indonesia. This study uses the method of evaluation research, where researchers analyze data, here in the form of sanctions documents released by broadcasting commissions. The results reveal that all national private television stations often violate regulations. They prioritize their business interests rather than follow broadcasting guidelines, especially since KPI does not have the full authority to grant and revoke a broadcasting license. The granting and revocation of permits remains under the authority of the government, where political lobbying plays a more significant role.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 17th January, 2018
  • Keywords: Television Business, Capitalism, Business ethics, Broadcasting License, Broadcasting Guidelines
  • Pages: 27-35
  • Received: 18th December, 2017
  • Final revision and acceptance: 14th January, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Judit OLÁH, József POPP, Gabriella ANTAL
 

Among the service industries, the analysis logistics as an academic field which has a great influence on firms’ creation of value and competitiveness, and within this the analysis of firms providing logistics services (3PLP), has become more relevant than in previous years. Among the expectations of logistics service providers, and among the sources of competitive advantage, are timeliness and flexibility, which can only be handled and measured together, because of the integration of services. At the same time, when supply chains (not corporations) compete with each other, we must create the opportunity to manage chains beyond company boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the time-related problems of supply chains (and sections) and logistics service providers, and their consequences and solutions. We have found that the development of time factors which appear and can be measured in the realization of logistics services contributes to the competitiveness of a logistics service company. The performance provided by companies that are integrated into the supply chain’s member companies and operate as flexible logistics service providers can have a significant impact on the (full) operation and efficiency of the supply chain.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 23th February, 2018
  • Keywords: Logistics, Supply chain, Logistics service provider, Time- based competition
  • Pages: 37-46
  • Received: 1st December, 2017
  • Final revision and acceptance: 14th February, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Adrian Laurențiu STUPARIU, George Constantin MANIU, Lorand KISS
 

In order to identify the characteristics of ocular trauma in children for design of data analysis based, accurate and targeted preventive measures, we have studied 29 patients who suffered blunt eye trauma, age 18 and below. The following parameters where taken into account: environment, gender, traumatized eye, type of trauma, zone, circumstances, visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Results: Contusions were the most common type of injuries, the most frequent circumstance was contact with a blunt object undetermined intent, and in more than 50% of cases zone II was the most affected. 50% of patients were between 12-15 years, eye trauma caused by aggression was found to be more frequent between 14-15 years, while injuries produced by a blunt object, undetermined intent where found at a younger age, approximately 12 years old. Ocular hypertension or hypotension was found more often in the rural environment. Visual acuity over 0.5 on admission was found in 38% of patients, and on discharge there number went up to 86% of cases. The patients spent on average 7 days in the hospital.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 7th March, 2018
  • Keywords: Blunt eye trauma, Close globe injury, Pediatric, Visual acuity, Trauma type, Zone
  • Pages: 47-52
  • Received: 15th February, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 4th March, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Luminita PAIUSAN, Marius BOITA, Boby COSTI, Eduard AJTAY, Adina Maria MOTICA
 

Knowledge of investment costs is a basic tool at the hands of managers and is used to increase the efficiency of economic activity. The investment cost study aims to obtain profits under various aspects, both at microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The short-term financing decision refers to the financing of the operating cycle, which gives the purpose of circulating capital management. Tourism investments are materialized through: accommodation units, equipment, and infrastructure works that ensure the operation of the investments. Given that investors want profit in a quicker and shorter timeframe, in this paper we have conducted a case study on an entity's investment, its cost, recovery time and profitability on basis of the estimated profit. Appropriate financing of the tourism industry would, in the medium term, provide an incentive for the national economy.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 13th April, 2018
  • Keywords: Tourism, Investment, Financing, Profit, Equipment
  • Pages: 53-58
  • Received: 18th March, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 12th April, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Shimon ELBAZ, Adriana ZAIT
 

Reducing energy consumption through changes in individual consumers’ behaviors is one of the most important challenges of the present society and near future. Our qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, deals with the investigation of household consumer behavior, in order to explore ways for reducing the electricity demand, in the particular cultural context of a country with high levels of energy consumption in both summer and winter times – Israel. Various approaches, coming from economics, sociology, psychology or education were tested, for limiting the use of a particular, invisible and intangible merchandise - electricity. The main objective of the present study was to determine consumers’ perceptions about the various approaches that could be used to decrease the domestic demand and consumption of electricity. A secondary objective was to identify, based on consumers’ perceptions, the factors of influence that could be used in future quantitative researches and governance strategies. We found out that investigated families have a high level of education in the field of electricity consumption and marketing campaigns, which would make the classic energy educational approach less efficient. Household electricity consumers in Israel have awareness and willingness not to waste or consume electricity beyond what is necessary, but the necessary level is positioned quite high. The social comparison approach appears to be ineffective, as well, even if it proved its efficiency in other cultures. The psychological and the economic approach could be partially efficient, if certain influence factors are widely used. These factors include mainly the magnitude of the savings, the perceived behavioral control, the personal thermal comfort and the pro-environmental attitude. The most important managerial implication concerns the strategies that could be conceived by electricity companies and national authorities – based on un-intrusive messaging, respect of privacy, valorization of green, pro-environmental beliefs and consumer empowering instruments.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 13th April, 2018
  • Keywords: Electricity consumer behavior, Qualitative research, Reducing household energy demand, Israel
  • Pages: 59-67
  • Received: 2nd April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 12th April, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Daniel Dumitru LEON
 

This study aims to present an econometric analysis that shows the interdependence between the turnover and the net profit, being achieved by a number of 65 companies operating in the IT industry from all regions of Romania. To achieve the objectives, the research aims to analyze the dynamic (quarterly) relationship between turnover and net profit in the IT sector. The usefulness of this research follows the ever-increasing evolution of this new industry, which, from year to year, succeeds to impose itself in the service sector in Romania, exceeding the established sectors in the GDP.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 14th April, 2018
  • Keywords: Turnover, Net profit, Correlation, IT industry
  • Pages: 69-74
  • Received: 1st April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 13th April, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Anca BUTNARIU, Florin-Alexandru LUCA, Andreea APETREI
 

Financial derivatives are now widely used by corporations to manage exposure to currency, interest rate, and commodity price risks. The motivation for non-financial firms to engage in corporate hedging is one of the most intensively discussed topics in corporate finance research. Recent financial theory suggests that there are several ways through which corporate hedging can increase firm value in the sense of the maximization of shareholder value. A rich body of literature consists of studies that have empirically investigated the theoretical explanations for corporate hedging, literature that presents rather mixed evidence for the drivers of corporate hedging. This paper investigates the effects of hedging activity on non-financial firm value and how operational hedging is related to and differentiated by financial hedging, by providing an extensive overview and synthesis of the existing literature.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 20th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Financial risk management, Financial hedging, Operational hedging
  • Pages: 75-79
  • Received: 20th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 18th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Mihai-Cosmin FANARU
 

The modern concept of marketing starts from the premise that any economic entity has to focus its attention on the management process that identifies, anticipates and satisfies the customer’s requirements in an efficient and profitable way. Any economic entity operating within a market must incorporate the function that recognizes the requirements and aspirations which were not achieved so far, then defines and measures their potential for profitability in order to meet the needs of consumers. In this context, the purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the issues that appear to be more challenging and frequent within the DIY market in Romania. For this reason, companies are investing heavily in market research to find answers to a number of very important questions such as: Why are some products purchased? When are they purchased? Where are they purchased from? All these questions need to be seriously dealt with and analyzed by the marketing team within any company so as to respond to the difficulties faced by managers in choosing an optimal solution.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 20th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Qualitative marketing research, Bricolage market, Consumers, Diy demand
  • Pages: 81-88
  • Received: 24th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 17th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Laura Alexandra MORTURĂ, Andreea Elena DREGHICIU
 

Accounting, in order to be able to deal with the requirements and changes in the economical-social environment, with the meaning of providing useful and actual information to the different kinds of users, has developed different techniques and methods. Among these, evaluation is to be taken into account, which has the purpose of giving the real value of tangible assets, but also audit, having the purpose of certifying the provided information through financial reports. Within the entities, tangible assets have a significant value, and an inadequate evaluation of these assets has a powerful impact upon the provided information, inferentially upon the decisions of different users. Therefore, through the identification and evaluation of objectives and relevant risks, in the process of tangible assets’ audit, emphasizing the inputs and outputs of the assets, more value is given to the entity, the efficiency of the management, control and presentation processes is improved, respectively decisions will be made based on a solidly grounded base.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 20th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Tangible assets, Evaluation, Revaluation, Audit
  • Pages: 89-95
  • Received: 4th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 17th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Oana Ramona GLONT
 

The relationship between economic development and defence has always been the subject of significant literature in the economic environment. The present study examines the impact of defence spending on economic growth from a global perspective for 2009-2016. It takes into consideration the economic size and status of each country in the current geopolitical context. The SMD model and linear regression are used to investigate the economic development-defence connection by using the SIPRI data set for 12 Central European countries. Numerous regression analysis examine the data using different estimated econometric formulas with maximum probability. The empirical results show that in the long run, the linear relationship between defence spending and economic development is sustained only in some cases with positive effects on GDP. The results are unfavourable in most of the analysed countries, defence spending having significant negative effects on economic development.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 26th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Defence spending, Economic development, Central Europe, SMD Model
  • Pages: 97-106
  • Received: 5th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Ioana GUTU, Irina MANOLESCU
 

The article reveals data about the managerial performance of Universitaria Consortium; as subjects for national and international funding, the four universities have large numbers of finalized and ongoing educational and research projects, their deliverables affecting the institutional international ranking. The article tries to reveal if there is any connection between the number of nationally and internationally funded projects specific for each of the four institutions considered, and their international metaranking. The empirical study used an extensive analysis of a series of factors important for universities performance. Data was available on institutions websites, projects paperwork and relevant ministries reports. The conclusions of the article show that there is not a strong connection between the number of projects developed by universities and their academic performance, since subjects with lower educational route have some of the highest numbers of developed projects. The results are relevant not only for the institutional management of the four universities, but also for governmental and non-governmental funding programs managers, and the decisions they make for raising the competitiveness among applicants.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 29th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Institutional management, International funding
  • Pages: 107-120
  • Received: 1st April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Raluca COSTACHE
 

An important source of understanding and perfection of athletic events is the knowledge and application of the biomechanical laws to the study and analysis of motive actions specific to athletic events. At the current level of sport performance, without a precise and thorough technique improvement work, it is impossible to advance towards outstanding results. The lack of a rational technique even becomes a limitative element in enhancing the psycho-motor skills of the athlete. The athletic exercise technique shall not be evaluated exclusively from the kinetic point of view (succession of apparent moves), but also in relation with the forces involved in its development, that can be hardly seen from outside, and therefore in relation with their dynamics. Thus, the kinetic evolution of the moves is just a component of the space-time technique, while the athletic exercises may be also carried out based on dynamic processes, integrated in one's kinetic evolution. Thus, we may say that technique means the most rational and economical use of the kinetic and dynamic potential. Thus, by reducing the human body to a system of segments and considering it a commonplace mere object and therefore subject to the general laws of mechanics, in order to analyze a given move, we shall determine and analyze forces acting upon one's body.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 29th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Long jump, World records, Dynamics, World Championships
  • Pages: 121-123
  • Received: 23th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th May, 2018
Volume VI, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 16
Corina ȚIFREA, Sidi Hassan CHERKAOUI
 

Ramadan (in Islam), the ninth month of the Muslim year. During this period, from the sunrise to the sunset, a total abstinence is practiced, no food, drink, nor any other nutritional substance can be introduced into the body through any method, but after sunset. Practicing daytime ramadan (fats) sport burns primarily the sugars and fatty acids that circulate in the blood and then asks the body to focus on glycogen stores, fats and proteins. The energy deficit leads the body into a "suffering" situation. In such a situation, it is difficult to get performance without the necessary amount of energy. Exercising intense effort calls for other sources of energy, such as fats and proteins. The use of muscle proteins for energy purposes leads to changes in contractile fibers and weakens the muscle tissue. This risk is even greater if the hydration is not correct, a situation often associated with the absence of food intake. Associated dehydration increases the risk of tendon and muscle lesions (tendinopathy, elongation, breakdown). During the Ramadan month, physical and sports performance is significantly reduced. Coaches have to take this into account. Programming competitions during this period is not very compatible with a high performance sports diet and with the idea of performance.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 29th May, 2018
  • Keywords: Ramadan, Performance football, Physical performances, Sport
  • Pages: 125-127
  • Received: 23th April, 2018
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th May, 2018