Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Rodica Diana APAN
 

The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Categories of entities, Registered sole trader, Individual enterprise, Family enterprise, Simple partnership, Partnership
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Rodica Diana APAN
 

The present study focuses on the analysis of the legal status of the affectation patrimony of the registered sole trader authorised to carry out trading activity as well as that of the simple partnership. Representing a distinct part of assets within the individual's own patrimony, the affectation patrimony attract the segregation of the professional creditors who can pursue the assets mainly for the professional obligations. But the effect of constituting the affectation patrimony is not that of preventing the creditors to pursue the other properties within the individual's own assets in the case where they have not been satiated from the affectation patrimony. We conclude that the patrimony of the persons that form a partnership from the individual type of business are exposed up to various degrees to be being pursued for the obligations towards the third parties.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Affectation patrimony, Types of patrimony, Creditor segregation, Order of preference
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Rodica Diana APAN
 

The types of business with legal personality have as one of the main traits the own patrimony. The company with legal personality is liable with its own patrimony. The new Civil Code launches the theme of the separation of patrimony, which means that this own patrimony shall be different from the personal patrimony of the person having the capacity of partner or administrator in one of the types of business with legal personality. Company Law 31/1990 provides for cases of extension of liability for the company's obligations, from the legal personality company's own patrimony to the partner's patrimony in certain types of business. The partner's own patrimony is not protected in this case either but rather exposed to being pursued by the partnership's creditors. The subsidiary character of the pursuance softens the liability but is insufficient to ensure the full protection of the partner's patrimony.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Separation of patrimony, Confusion of patrimony, The creditors of the company, The creditors of the partner, Extension of the partner's liability for the company obligations
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Marius BOIŢĂ
 

Nowadays marketing appears to be the result of long efforts of generalization and reflection of economical theory regarding marketing practice that has emerged and developed as a consequence of contemporary social and economic dynamism. Through the implementation of an effective marketing system and modern Romanian tourism, constantly improving quality performance of products or services will be provided towards achieving a performing tourism. The recent ongoing development of tourism, vast global expansion, the development of tourism in tourist reception structures by applying a suitable marketing will increase the tourism potential consumer’s satisfaction. In order to obtain a sustainable position in the tourism market and tourism companies must address complex marketing plan strategies.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Tourism, Services, Consumers, Marketing, Tourism market
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU
 

The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over a paired sample of 1424 companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the labor productivity was based on the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (63.2%) and the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.665). The results confirm the practical utility of the labor productivity in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Corporate finance, Risk, Failure, Financial ratio, Financial analysis, Classification accuracy
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Ana Raluca CHIOSA
 

Through the access to information, the Internet has transformed people lifestyle, their preference for products, how they relate to brands. Perceived as an open space, without limitation, social media has become the main channel for expression of word-of-mouth, with both positive and negative effects. Thus The Internet has allowed the development of WOM, making it contemporary in our technological world. This paper examines the motives for adopting WOM behavior, forms of WOM, the WOM model and principles, directions of WOM research. Brand engagement has made consumers more powerful in terms of requirements and evaluation of product/brand, more demanding and impatient in brand communication and market response.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Word-of-mouth, Social media, Brand engagement
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Ciprian-Dan COSTEA
 

Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Fair value, Historical cost accounting, Fair value accounting, Reported financial information, Capital markets
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Victoria FIRESCU
 

The objectives of the present research are related to the approaches concerning the “performance audit” concept in the specialized literature and practice as well as the clear delimitation of this concept of financial audit and internal audit. For a clear emphasis of the objectives and principles of the performance audit, I highlighted the similarities and differences among the three types of audit by means of several criteria such as: audit standards, audited subjects, nature of the audit evidence, manners of assessment. Within this basically predominant research, I used several research methods and techniques such as: the critical analysis of the bibliographic sources concerning the performance audit, the documentation related to the international audit standards, comparative studies.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Audit, Performance, Principles, Public money, Audit standard
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Luminita-Maria GOGAN, Dan Cristian DURAN
 

In order to gain competitive advantage organizations need more efficient use of intellectual capital. Therefore, management of intellectual capital has become one of the functions of growth in companies today. Focus on managing intelectul capital is due to the role intelectula competencies and knowledge in contemporary business which is significant. The most common terms for intellectual capital management functions at the organizational level are competence management and competence development. Managers conduct activities to manage intellectual capital in the need for knowledge on personnel competencies and their development in operative functions. The literature presents a series of intellectual capital management models, most belonging to the researchers in the Nordic countries. The aim of this paper is to developea new model of managing intellectual capital that improve the existing models. Thus, by using the proposed model is expected that the relationship between intellectual capital management and strategy of a company should intensify on medium term.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Intellectual Capital Management, Intangible assets, Managing, Steps, Model
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Carmen-Mariana MIHALACHE
 

The article goal is to reveal the necessity of strategies in order to increase the responsibility level of local public administrations and to settle the obligation imposed to the administrative and territorial units to launch public debate topics needed for the regional development, in which the civil society should also participat. The credo of our debates is that the state is equally fundamented on the protection of the personal rights and liberties, no matter to whom it refers to. In art.1 point 3 from the Romanian constitution there is instituted as a constitutional principle the fact that „Romania is a democratic and social state, where the dignity of the man, the rights and the liberties of the citizens, the free development of the human personality, the justice and the political pluralism represent supreme values, in the spirit of the democratic traditions of the Romanian people and the ideals of the Revolution from December 1989 and all these are guaranteed”.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Public administrations, European juridical order, Depoliticization of public officers, Proposal of legislative projects
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Liliana DONATH, Veronica Mihuțescu CERNA, Ionela Maria OPREA
 

The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and Romania.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Banking crises, Bad loans, Economic growth
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Margareta RUSU-TANASA
 

This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the wood processing industry in the process of regional development. The concept of clusters has become more and more popular in recent years, as more and more theorists and practitioners realize its potential; nevertheless the idea of cluster research in the wood processing industry is relatively new. With the shift to knowledge based management, the difference made by creative networks and clusters that promote research, development and innovation is crucial. The purpose of this paper is to underline the benefits that can come from cluster development and outline the impact of clusters on innovation, Knowledge and competitiveness in the wood processing industry and the Romanian Economy.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Competitiveness, Cluster, Innovation, Knowledge, Wood processing industry
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Dan SERGHIE, Carmen NISTOR
 

Many organizations make collaborative learning with other entities an integral part of their business. But leaders must measure the performance of innovation. Declaring a collaborative and innovative perspective in the mission and vision of a company is not sufficient. It is necessary to measure the process and results to justify investments in research and development (R&D) and ensure continuity of the company's success. Over the years, researchers proposed various models for measuring the performance of collaborative innovation within companies. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on collaborative innovation network in order to identify the main approach used for measuring its performance. As many studies show, notable results were obtained in the case of multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs are seen as the main vehicle for innovation. They are the first who developed international network of collaborative innovation based on R&D expenses. As a result, we first focus on the motives for which MNCs are considered the main developers of these networks. Furthermore we discuss the existing literature for measuring performance of collaborative innovation networks and, at last, we develop a model for evaluating collaborative innovation performance based on previous research.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Multinational groups, Collaborative innovation performance
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Mihaela ȘTEȚ
 

This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Economic, Policy, Energy, Environment, Financial
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Ana-Maria ZAMFIR
 

In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Migration, Returning motivations, Migration decision
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 6
Laura Cătălina PAȘCU
 

International Development Assistance (IDA) architecture is rapidly changing and becoming more complex as new providers of assistance enter the scene. These new providers of assistance, while not members of the traditional club of donors, nonetheless make meaningful contributions, both financial and in-kind, to key development and humanitarian challenges. New providers of assistance such as the BRICS countries - Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa – or Turkey, South Korea, are important for international assistance not only because of their financial and human resources, but also for the value they bring as regional leaders in their respective parts of the globe and contribute with their own unique experience and success in addressing development challenges at home as well as how best to cooperate with traditional donors.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 24th December, 2014
  • Keywords: Global development, International assistance, Donor-recipient cooperation, Emerging donor
  • Received: 2nd December, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22th December, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ, Ildikó Réka CARDOȘ
 

Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Information systems audit, Internal and financial auditors
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Efrat KEDEM-TAHAR
 

The aim of this article is to contribute a practical study model based on long term, deep, mainly historical studies about the Holocaust inAlbania. A similar model has already existed forthe eight years in Bucharest, Romania. Based on its advantages and the needs in Albania I built a new model. The article describes the relevanthistorical backgroundand raised the humanistic questions that have interested and challenged many historians over the last 20 years.The article is based on theoretical methods from other fields and integrates them into the original model. The model is divided into two parts that are interdependent. The conclusion and discussion summarize all the factors in order to convince the Albanian Ministry of Education and University of Tirana to adopt its idea.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Righteousamong the Nations, YadVashem, Unfreezing, Refreezing, Anti-Semitism, Fascism
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Oana Simona HUDEA (CARAMAN), Sorin George TOMA, Marin BURCEA
 

The present paper aims at describing some key elements of the new classical theory-related model, namely the Real Business Cycle, mainly describing the economy from the perspective of a perfectly competitive market, characterised by price, wage and interest rate flexibility. The rendered impulse-response functions, that help us in revealing the capacity of the model variables to return to their steady state under the impact of a structural shock, be it technology or monetary policy oriented, give points to the neutrality of the monetary entity decisions, therefore confirming the well-known classical dichotomy existing between the nominal and the real factors of the economy.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: New classical theory, Real business cycle, Rational expectations, Macroeconomic modelling, Technology shock, Monetary policy
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Camelia MĂNESCU, Teodor MATEOC, Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB
 

In recent yearsmanyextremenatural phenomena have affected not only agriculture, but the population of the country as well. The continuous deterioration of the environmental conditions has produced irreversible effects on people’s lives and activities. Protection curtains are a solution for such phenomena. In this paper, the authors focus on the main phenomena challenging the environment and highlights a few solutions that could diminish the negative effects of such phenomena on thequality of lifeand the environment. Research shows that Romania’s population, in general, and Romania’s rural population, in particular, as well as the national economy, has been challenged these two decades by extreme meteorological phenomena of particular amplitude: heat and severe drought, abundant rainfall, land glides and catastrophic floods, and abundant stormy snow falls.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Quality of life, Protection curtains, Development, Increase
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ionela MANIU, George C. MANIU
 

Competition in the higher education sector is forcing the higher educational institutions (HEI) to develop more competitive marketing strategies. For developing universities marketing strategies HEI need to understand the student choice process of a university. Understanding university choice process is not easy, this process involves complex decision which affects students’ life (future career, friends, residence, etc.). Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore the factors that influence university choice decision, in general, by investigating factors, relevant in literature, which most influence this decision. Among the factors identified are: institutional reputation, cost, employment opportunities, parents’ influence, educational offer, location. This study has been done in order to find the most important factors that influence choice of a university among Romanian students.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Higher educational institutions (HEI), University choice process, Factors that influence university choice
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
 

The sport business must determine how to get its products from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Additionally, in this industry, there are products produced at a point where the consumer must be present at its production to consume the product. These products are sports events, such as a professional basketball game, a football match, or a super cross race. In these types of products, the event - the product - is staged at a facility where fans will gather to watch. The sport business will have made decisions regarding the facility in relation to location and other factors that will make the facility attractive to the consumer as a place in which to consume these types of products. This paper presents a brief overview about distribution in the sport business industry, the role of distribution in marketing strategy, the selection of a distribution network, and the types of distribution intermediaries available for moving and / or offering sport business industry products.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Distribution intermediaries, Distribution systems, Marketing channels, Sport business industry
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Carmen NISTOR
 

International business development is a complex phenomenon, characterized by a particularly dynamic due both to external and internal factors of the company and the need to foreshadow future directions in the development of the economic, social, political framework. Taking into consideration the ways that a company can expand, this article aims to analyse the evolution of multinational corporations operating in Romania in 2007-2012. Using data provided by The National Institute of Statistics (NIS), we focus on the multinationals groups that entered Romanian market in the period mentioned above. In this regard, we compared the multinational groups with the national ones, identifying the concentration of foreign capital by country. The results show that although has been recorded a significant variation of multinational groups in Romania, especially during the financial crisis period, the companies from Deutschland occupy first place by number of employees.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Transnationalization, Multinational groups, External control, Internal control
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Laura-Maria POPESCU, Ileana NIȘULESCU
 

This article sets out to present the difference between the means of executing creative accountingand that of executing fraud, the way in which they are perceived in the business environment, as well as the implications that they have in companies’ activities. The article’s structure consists in an analysis of the terms „creative accounting” and „fraud”, presenting ideas and definitions that a series of economists have attributed to these terms, the differences between the two concepts, the risks that they imply and the opinion of the business environment regarding the two phenomena. The hypotheses that the article is based on constituted the starting point for a study conducted on the employees of companies operating on Romanian territory. The conclusions confirmed most of the study’s hypotheses and the fact that the two terms are often mistaken for one another and, in the opinion of the majority of respondents, constitute reasons for concern with regard to the financial statements submitted by a company.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Creative accounting, Fraud, Users, Accounting Information
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Monica PUIU
 

Nowadays, globalisation and business internalisation have led to an increased number of frauds in organisations worldwide. The most affected are the multinational corporations because of the geographical distance, different fiscal systems and local factors that consist in tremendous opportunities for employees and/or managers to involve in fraud schemes. Starting from recent studies and prior efforts of international organisations or countries to stop fraud by imposing regulations to be respected for the economic environment, the purpose of the paper is finding the key factors for detecting and preventing fraud in the organisations. In our approach we use several proposals for a conceptual framework developed by two companies of “The big four”, KPMG and Deloitte. The results indicate that for the number of fraud to decrease, any organisation needs to develop and implement a strong anti-fraud plan, by covering all logical steps to be made in this matter.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Antifraud plan,Risk management, Antifraud organisational culture
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mihaela ȘTEȚ
 

The potential of SME in the development of economy makes it necessary to find solutions to expand the role of entrepreneurship in the economy. Fostering it and the development of an entrepreneurial culture represents levers for solving some problems such as: unemployment, the economic growth in regions less developed, achieving a sustainable development of UE member states. There have been revealed the main problems facing SME and measures that can be taken to support entrepreneurship, including population groups considered disadvantaged.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Promotion, Entrepreneurship, Regional, Development, SME
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Sorin-George TOMA, Marin BURCEA, Oana Simona HUDEA (CARAMAN)
 

The largest multinational and transnational corporations are key actors in the world economy. Their number has significantly increased in the last decades both in the developed and the developing countries. Consequently, they are more dispersed globally than in the past. As the world’s largest corporations have become more powerful over time, they represent not only an economic force, but also a political and cultural force in today’s highly globalized world. They have a huge impact on the lives of billions of people every day. The aim of our paper is to analyse the evolution of the first ten world’s largest corporations by their revenues and profits in the period 2012-2013. The research type is literature review.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Corporations, Revenue, Profit, Globalization
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Claudia URDARI, Adriana TIRON TUDOR
 

This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903) and Blaikie (1993), we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Abductive research strategy, Abductive reasoning, Research methods, Qualitative research, Accounting research
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andra M. ACHIM, Anca O. CHIŞ
 

The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Financial accounting quality, Conceptual Framework, Qualitative characteristics, Reporting information
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Simona Catalina ALBULESCU, Anca Alexandra PUCĂREA, Ovidiu DASCĂLU
 

The business world is changing at an impressive speed: the global financial crisis, challenging markets, technology and talent crisis have a major impact on business. The last century can be associated with the triumph of the automobile industry. At the beginning of the 21st century the automotive industry has experienced one of the largest shifts in the automotive history. The new CO2 regulations on global level have determined the automotove industry to adopt new and original technologies faster than anticipated. The emerging tendency of car sharing in larger cities added to the media information related to the negative environmental effects of car mobility generate concerns that customers were seeking a replacement to the traditional, individual car ownership. The automotive industry will face challenging years ahead taking into consideration the shifting paradigm in auto-mobility. In this context, this article aims to provide a general perspective of the tendencies in the automotive sector.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Transition management,Socio-technical transition,New technologies,E-mobility, Energy-efficiency,Modularization
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
A WELL-FUNDED PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM FOR A HEALTHY NATIONAL ECONOMY
 

The article focuses on the healthcare financing analysis in Romania in the European context, trying to capture the revenue and the expenses trends over the last years. All time health system was the most important domain for a national economy. It is known that a domestic economy works if it has a good health system. This is the reason for which I took as an example to be followed Netherlands health system that I would recommend to be used even in Romania in order to get the best results.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Health system, Health funding, Health insurance market, Public health expenses, Public health revenues
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Abdulrahman ALRASSI
 

Terrorism is a key issue and an international phenomenon that affects several countries and large communities with various ethnic minorities and religious groups have suffered from terrorism. It leads to a disruption of the progress and development, and as result of these acts valuable resources are exhausted. Across the centuries Islamic history has witnessed disturbances and plots from those who attribute themselves to Islam and whom they abide by Islam regulations and teachings, as Islam calls upon moderation and none interference with others. Therefore, intellectual approach for true Islamic teachings, in terms of belief and thought, none interference, jurisprudence, decency and behavior, did not remain marginal issue, but have become urgent and core requirement nowadays because there has been further delinquency, corruption, temptations and misconceptions at this time. In all Islamic teachings, fighting terrorism needs to happen to achieve peace.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Counterterrorism, Peace, Stability, Fighting terrorism
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mohammed ALSHAHRI
 

The uprisings of the Arab Spring had a major impact not only on the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Gulf Cooperation Council Countries but also on the entire world. Analysts in various fields are still debating on the causes that led to such historical events, and also on the effects on short and long term that these revolutions have, or might have. One thing is certain for all: the Arab world entered a new stage in its development. This paper aims to analyse the Arab Spring from as many points of view as possible, looking to indicators that traditionally define a country’s health and well-being, including political and socio-economic markers, various economic crises, the rise of Islamist parties, increases in sectarianism, and other challenges.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Conflict, revolution, Ideologies, Mena countries, Gulf cooperation council countries
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Emanuela Maria AVRAM
 

The social networks have been growing steadily in recent years. Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, is a modern means of communication and socialization that has taken lately more ground in higher education becoming an important academic tool in the communication process. Many universities have their own Facebook page, being used by both students and teachers, and creating Facebook groups increasingly facilitates communication with students. Thus, this paper aims to identify the importance that Facebook holds in the academic communication process and highlights the implications it has in higher education. The results reveal that this type of communication has gained more ground in academia creating real social communities, and students use it more and more for collaboration in various activities involved in the higher education system, but also for socializing and information.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Communication, Social Network, Facebook, Higher Education
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Geanina S. BANU, Andreea DUMITRESCU, Anca A. PURCĂREA
 

Defining and classifying innovation represents a complex approach both theoretical and practical. While comprising various views, the innovation concept is permanently redefined according to various criteria. Nevertheless, approaching innovation generic features should be always considered as defining the core of innovation as a concept. The aim of the present paper is to perform a literature review identifying the essential features of innovation with the aim of providing a comprehensive and holistic view of the concept. Furthermore, the present article aims at delivering a theoretical guide on innovation. To this end, the review comprises definition of concept, classification, risk factors, innovation systems and measuring indicators.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Innovation, Risk factors, Innovation systems, Measuring indicators
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ
 

This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Multinational companies, Foreign direct investment, Economic globalization
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Constantin BORDEI
 

This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it becomes more and more efficient. The high foreign direct investments from the automotive sector play an important role in regional development process. Continuous changes are being made in the economy, society, and company; in conclusion the automotive clusters will always be a subject of analysis.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Cluster, Automotive industry, Regional development, Employment, Geographical concentration
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Flavia CAIA
 

The economic conditions and market competition create pressures on companies to adopt new technologies that can provide more efficient information and can support decision-making better. The purpose of the research is to investigate the decision support information systems in order to apprise and enhance the capacity of the entities to apply the new knowledge that BI produces for organizational success and competitiveness. The importance of the conducted research consists in identifying solutions to improve reporting and stimulate the entities to start using business intelligence (BI) technologies, which facilitate obtaining new information, in order to ensure flexibility, resilience and provide answers to questions that go beyond what the pre-defined reports can do to support decision-making. The estimated result is a technical and operational overview of the large companies in Romania, drawing future directions for an improved competitive behaviour and strategic awareness, and identifying the significant factors for optimizing the decision-making process.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Business Intelligence, Economic competitiveness, Decisional process, Absorptive capacity
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Daniela CALTEA
 

In conducting this study my intention was to provide a general presentation on valuing and respecting the rights of children and youth affected by HIV/AIDS in Romania. My research goal was to assess the implementation and enhancement of the rights of HIV positive Romanian children and youth. The themes covered are: conceptual delimitations on the virus infection, the history of HIV/AIDS, statistics including general information on HIV/AIDS in Romania, the legislation regarding the rights of people affected by HIV. I focused on the violation of these rights and on measures taken against discrimination.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Rights, Statistics, Legislation, Discrimination
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Gabriela CĂPĂȚÎNĂ
 

This article attempts to analyze the influence of culture on marketing programs for new products launch. Despite the special attention that literature confers to new products, the tactical side represented by marketing program which operationalize the new product launch, it is strongly neglected. Thus, considering the actual trends toward international markets and the existing gap in literature, the paper sections will treat the culture components in relation with marketing program activities developed for a new product launch. The contribution of this paper at scientific progress is accomplished by providing detailed descriptions of changes occurred in marketing programs in cultural diversity context; it is a preamble for a field which need new developments, theories and knowledge. In terms of conclusions, marketing program on international market is expected to be a good predictor of new product success, and at the same time, a useful approach to optimize the allocation of marketing effort.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Culture, Marketing programs, New products, International market
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Anatolie CARAGANCIU, Viorica CARARE
 

A large variety of different countries conditions requires a modernization of criteria, norms and standards of competition regulation and methods of enforcement. Competition advocacy is a type of complementary activity exercised by antimonopoly authorities additional to enforcement measures, through active cooperation with market, government and civil society actors and increasing the understanding of the benefits of competition. Relevance of article is determined by summarizing the theoretical studies and the present practice of advocacy in the USA and the EU. Originality and practical applications of research are based on empirical studies completed by Moldovan Competition Board.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Competition criteria, Competition norms, Competition advocacy, Antimonopoly authorities
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ildikó Réka CARDOȘ, Ștefan PETE, Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ
 

Globalization and changes in the business environment have important implications on the nature and function of managerial accounting (MA). Organizations realized that market and customer orientation is essential for their success and the secret to improve profitability and performances is to attract and maintain customers. Customer relationship management (CRM) is one of the most important business strategies for organizational performance evaluation. Although CRM is considered to be a marketing topic it is an important MA innovation at the same time and represents an attractive research topic. This article aims to explore the theoretical knowledge of CRM from the perspective of MA. In the first part, we focus on the conceptual framework of CRM, trying to identify processes and technologies involved. The second part is devoted to reflection on the successful implementation of CRM. Finally, we summarize the key points arising from the theory in order to set further research objectives.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Managerial accounting, Customer relationship management, Organizational performances
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Lenuta CARP (CEKA)
 

Foreign direct investments have known an increased importance in the worldwide economy. Theoretical approaches highlight the positive externalities foreign direct investments generate in the beneficiary economy though different channels. The aim of this paper is to emphasize, based on an econometric analysis using data for Romania, the fundamental determinants of foreign direct investments attractiveness. The analysis will be followed by the recommendations for increasing the inflows in our country and measures to enhance their effect in the national economy. Further analysis will be developed focusing on the emerging countries from Europe using a panel technique.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investments, Determinants, Cross-country study, OLS method
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Silviu Cornel Virgil CHIRIAC, Dimi OFILEANU
 

The notion of investment is extremely complex, perceived with different meanings and significations. The use of investment strategies in the management activity implies the application of scientific techniques and methods. In order to ensure a constant economic growth it is necessary to prepare investment projects. In practice the predominant one is the investment activity based on real investments performed for the modernising of assets, in order to ensure their physical and moral wear and tear.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Investments, Uncertain environment, Cash-flow, Mathematical expectation
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ioana-Alexandra CHIRIANU, Irina IONESCU
 

The 20th century was marked by the revolutionary IT industry, reaching billions of dollars in annual revenues. The following article hankers after approaching the IT developing sector from the perspective of women inequity in a man dominated industry. This research describes both the legal and illegal aspects of women implications in the IT industry during the 2000-2014’s, focusing on the United States, Eastern Europe and India as local coordinates. Combined, these regions count for the three largest IT outsourcing markets in the world. The analysed period of time refers to the worldwide boom of the “dotcoms” at the end of the 20th century until the current year. The authors aim to describe the evolution of employed women in the IT industry and the status of women who are victims of cyber bullying and terrorism or, on the contrary, the ones bullying. As a result, cyber bullying stands for a main concern nowadays, with women often being bullied over the Internet, or easily becoming victims of identity theft. Women also face an unequal position to men in the IT industry across the studied regions.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Women status, IT industry, Cyber terrorism, Women in IT, Eastern Europe
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Anca Oana CHIȘ, Andra Maria ACHIM
 

Professional judgement represents the key to a succesful audit engagement. In order for the auditors to use their professional judgment correctly, they must know the rules and standards, both those related to accounting and audit.ISA 200 emphasizes the importance of exercising professional judgment in the planning phase and in the auditor's audit work. Judgment is exercised by an auditor whose training, knowledge and experience have assisted in developing the skills needed to achieve reasonable judgments. The article is a theoretical one, its main objective being the study of professional judgement in audit engagements. Professional judgment was analyzed using a qualitative research methodology, taking into considerationdefinitions from auditing standards and presenting the work of researchers all over the world, while emphasizing specific situations in which judgement is used. Our study draws the attention to the importance of the professional judgement during audit and the obligation of each auditor to use it appropriately.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Professional judgement, Scepticism, Audit engagement, Audit opinion
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Elena CHIȚIMUȘ
 

Corporate Governance is seen as a set of systems, rules, regulations that are in place in order to keep the company on a straight path and to give assurance to the shareholders that their investment is well protected. One of the instruments that are at the choice of the shareholders is the Board of Directors (BoD). Debates go around its role of monitoring and supervising, on obtaining an adding value board or a competitive advantage, on the changes that it has suffered along the years. This paper is a literature review on the diversity in gender, age and experience of the members of the board that have in their hands the power to bring value or destruction to companies. The study shows that are many contradictory results and opinions on the matter and that company’s performance is determined by many factors combined together, like a good mix of culture, experience, professionalism. Discrimination shouldn’t be made on gender, age, background, all persons should be given equal chances and stereotype should be fought more.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Corporate Governance, Board of Directors, Diversity, Women
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Diana D. COCONOIU
 

Influencing factors of FDI are economic, social and political. The contextual factors can have a substantial influence on FDI inflows and outflows. The proposed analysis will identify whether there is a direct relationship between economic growth and FDI flows. In this paper, I will analyse the situation of four countries, namely Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, the United Kingdom and the European Union to see the influence of GDP growth per capita on increasing the share of FDI in GDP and to what extent. Another potential factor influencing FDI inflows is represented by the exports and imports of a country, most of the studies concluding on a significant positive relationship of the trade flows over the FDI inflows. This will prove that FDI is not a substitute of the trade flows but an additional element, together contributing to increase the role of the state in the global economic system.Abstract will be written in English.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Economic growth, FDI flows
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Cintia L. COLIBABA, Irina GHEORGHIU, Cristina A. COLIBABA
 

The article is based on the findings of the Goerudio project which has been implemented by the EuroEd Foundation Iasi. The study focuses on the main factors responsible for students’ passivity and suggests innovative solutions in order to enhance students’ motivation to study science. Project participants, students, teachers and experts alike, have been engaged in applied research and development since the very beginning. Traditional and state-of-the-art teaching methods promoted by European projects have been taken into account. A solid learning community encouraging a new learning environment has been created through national and international interaction and communication. Its main ambition is to devise the necessary tools to enable learners to get a better understanding of the scientific subjects.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Education, Science, Students, Learning Community
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Sorina CORMAN, Cristina TĂNĂSESCU
 

Based on the values of sustainability, progress and intergenerational equity, the sustainable development is a determinant of eco-social development. The role to implement these values is the responsibility of the organizations working in the area, organizations which come with their own specific design and structures but also with their own organizational values. This paper proposes an analysis of organizational values and principles reflected in the Romanian Sustainable Development Strategies (eight strategies / regional sustainable development plans and the national sustainable development strategy) in relation to the sustainable development values, using the logical framework matrix as a tool to address competitive values. This tool suggests a multidimensional integrative analysis of organizational management approaches on the one hand and sustainable management on the other hand, drawing an objective and holistic picture of sustainable development.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Competing values, Sustainable development, Organizational management
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandrina D. CRUCEANU, Gianina Maria COJOC, Danut-Gabriel COZMA
 

If, at national and international level there is a consensus regarding the beneficial influence or the negative effects of climatic conditions on health state, we would like here to highlight whether this postulate is valid or not and in what way, for the upper basin of the Moldavian Bistrita. The human communities’ health state is dependent on a series of natural and anthropic factors that determine, influence or include the spacial and temporal evolution of health state, the reason why we try to identify as exactly as possible, the determinism, the postulate and the princely character of the factors involved in the fluctuations and the contiguity of incidence and the prevailance of different medical affections. In the present approach we wished to highlight the measure, the way and the degree in which the climatic factors (like atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, wind’s speed and atmospheric condensation) determine and influence the population’s health state in the upper basin of the Moldavian Bistrita.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Population health state, Chronical and infectious diseases, Climatic values, Incidence and prevalence
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Anca CRUCERU
 

In the context of twenty-first century trends, reengineering is a strategic alternative for the adaptation of organizations (SMEs) to changes imposed by the external environment, but also for the improvement of performance and to gain competitive advantage. Thus, this theoretical article argues the veracity of the claim in the previous paragraph, by submitting the following concepts: the concept of reengineering, types of reengineering processes, BPR influence factors, BPR key success factors and causes for failure of the implementation of such processes in SMEs and its own methodology of process reengineering.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Reengineering (BPR), Reengineering typology, BPR influence factors, BPR key success factors, BPR causes for failure, BPR methodology
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU
 

The United States and the European Union are considered, by the analysts, to be the most strategic partners in the international system nowadays. Because of their common interests, these two world powers are in constant competition and cooperation. For this reason, this paper emphasizes the most important aspects of the US-EU competition and cooperation policy in a multipolar world. The study includes also the analyze of domestic and international sources of the US-EU cooperation. In order to find out and to explain the sources of the US-EU cooperation, it is necessary to focus on exploring the causes of the international cooperation. Another direction of the analysis is to explain the importance of cooperation in transatlantic competition policy by investigating the negotiations of the transatlantic partnership between the United States and the European Union.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Competition policy, Transatlantic relation, International cooperation, Transatlantic partnership
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andrei R. DELEANU
 

With the recent developments in the past decade new international actors that have benefited from a flourishing economic stability and a liberalization of global trade have emerged. China stands out as one of the most important new actors that have emerged, a “rising power”. These new found global and regional self-perception have led to an intensification of its international engagement. International development aid is one area that has seen a rapid increase in importance for the Chinese government. Recipient countries from Africa or Asia welcome China as a new donor even though its methods differ from the OECD standards. As a result a series of questions and challanges rise up when it comes to Chinese foreign aid. First there is the issue in understanding what China defines as aid. The second issue is observing the impact that these policies have and to whom are they intended, a special attention being paid to the African Continent.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: China, Aid, Development, Emergent, Wellfare, Africa
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Carmen-Mariana MIHALACHE
 

What defines the idea of state, social order and appurtenance of an individual to a social class? Citizenship rights and liberties correlative to the obligations incumbent on us! And yet the property right and the idea of appropriation of a movable or immovable good through all the modalities provided by law remain the ones which best define the modern human being. The idea of property was the one that marked the emergence of social classes and differences between them.The coexistence of public and private property was and is an element that characterizes every form of government of any age organization.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Property, State, Social order, Legal system
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Oana DUMITRASCU, Constantin Manuel HILA
 

The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Curricular activities, Students’ satisfaction, Similarities, Differences
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andreea DUMITRESCU, Geanina S. BANU, Anca A. PURCĂREA
 

As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Innovation, Risk factors, Intellectual property
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Maura Gabriela FELEA, Florin MITU, Maria M. LEON
 

The elderly rehabilitation program after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) encompasses endurance training performed on a cycloergometer and physical rehabilitation, the results being exceeded by adding strength and balance exercises. Early initiation of mobilization exercises can prevent problems of posture, as well as thoraco-pulmonary and scapular-humeral articulation conditions often encountered after cardiac surgery. The results of special functional training in elderly can be assessed by six minute walk perimeter and quality of life questionnaire. This article describes the extents of multiple dimensions facets of cardiac rehabilitation program, like effort capacity and psycho-social benefits, morbi-mortality and cost-effectiveness. Referral to cardiac rehabilitation for primary and secondary prevention programs remains low in developing countries. There is a need for a network intelligence schema in order to address patients’ needs and to improve health care professionals’ education.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Network intelligence schema, Cardiac rehabilitation referral, Elderly patients, Cardiac surgery, Cost-effectiveness, Psycho-social outcomes
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Maura Gabriela FELEA, Florin MITU, Liana RADA BORZA
 

Negative emotions (distress) are recognized as part of the psychological profile of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. However, most patients are not accustomed to verbalize feelings towards their physician, and generally towards family and medical care personnel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the expression of emotions by patients in advanced stages of cancer, respectively the means by which they get to express emotions. To this respect, we identified the most common types of emotions expressed, or metaphors used by patients to describe their emotions and topics that trigger emotions. Words and phrases most commonly used are in relation to: fear, anxiety, depression, guilt, negligence, concern. They are uttered in order to depict the network created between disclosed emotions and topics on health status, symptoms, adverse effects and therapeutic choice, patient privacy, and social and family issues.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Network between emotions and topics, Distress, Advanced stage cancer, Disclosed emotions
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ, Alexandrina PĂDUREȚU
 

Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Social Networks, Communication, Virtual space, Facebook
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS), Roxana Mihaela SIRBU (OARZA), Cristian MOCAN
 

In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Fiscal Policy, Sustainability, Tax Revenues
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Anca-Simona HROMEI
 

At the level of Romania, very few studies approach the issue of how mergers can influence the medium-term financial performance of the participating companies. International studies often obtain contradictory results when measuring the impact of mergers on the financial performance. This study aims at analysing the merger transactions that took place in Romania during the year 2011, in the trading sector. A total of 87 companies involved in merger deals were included in the sample. As measurements for the financial performance, the net turnover, the net profit and the return on sales rate have been chosen. The results show that mergers din not have a positive impact on the financial performance of the absorbing companies for the three years following the reorganizing operation. It has been identified a decrease in terms of profitability for the absorbing companies, only the level of net turnover recording significant increases in the medium term.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Mergers, Financial performance, Turnover, Net Profit, Return on Sales
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andreea IANCU
 

This paper analyzes the Responsibility to protect principle as the paradigm that reinforces the just war theory in the current international relations. The importance of this analysis is given by the fact that in the current change of source of international conflicts, the Responsibility to protect principle affirms the responsibility of the international community to protect all the citizens of the world. In this context we witness a translation toward a Post-Westphalian international system, which values the individual as a security referent. This article discusses the origins of the responsibility to protect principle and problematizes (discusses) the legitimacy of use of violence and force in the current international system. Moreover, the paper analyzes the possible humanization of the current international relations and, simultaneously, the persistency of conflict and warfare in the international system. The conclusion of this research states that the Responsibility to protect principle revises the just war theory by centering it on the individual.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Responsibility to protect, Just War, Sovereignty as responsibility, Human security, Juspos Bellum
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandra IOANID, Carmen-Laura ZARZU, Cezar SCARLAT
 

Day by day globalization covers new areas of life and calls for continuous learning and adjusting to new cultural dimensions. Managers are expected to display adaptation to new ways of working, cultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence and to posses multicultural competencies communication skills. Understanding the impact of cultural diversity on the communication within the organization is essential for the success of a company. Especially in multinational companies, when departments working on the same projects are located in different countries, the managers rely more and more on cultural- specific country characteristics in order to chose the best negotiation and communication techniques. The aim of this paper is to show how the country specific cultural characteristics impact on the success or failure of a business and the organizations’ challenge with preparing managers for success in international business environment. The paper is based on literature review and on authors’ experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Multicultural team, Cultural managerial competencies, Cultural intelligence
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandra IOANID, Petruta MIHAI, Gheorghe MILITARU
 

A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Cultural diversity, Country-specific culture, Cultural branding
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Cristian Silviu BANACU, Emilian Cristian IRIMESCU
 

SCADA is an old term, older than twenty years, used for defining systems that acquires data from industrial networks and / or critical infrastructure networks and process them for operational and security purposes. Its importance is growing simultaneously with the development of technology’s interference in our lives (social life, economical life, etc.). Although they are not defined as SCADA systems, Security dispatches (and their structure) have a lot of similarities with the general architecture of SCADA systems. Taking into consideration the security dispatches, as they are accepted by the actual Romanian law, we will draw a parallel between them and SCADA architecture, identifying the similarities and the differences between them, and also the points where some changes could be made.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Security, Management, SCADA Dispatch
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Rada Cristina IRIMIE
 

The term of “globalization” has been very much used in recent days in order to explain a series of phenomena, especially from the economic field. Indeed, after a thorough research, globalization could be mostly relegated to the economic field. However, the term can also designate a series of other processes, from other fields of activities. The present paper shall deal with an analysis of two economic colossus – the European Union and China by applying to them the variable of “globalization”. It is globalization that made possible the establishment of such relations, as well as their effective management and constant improvement. Even if the relations have had their ups and downs, the general framework provided by globalization helped appease conflicts when they were about to break out, and even offered an alternative to situations which seemed impossible to manage (as is the arms embargo). The paper shall be structured as follows: an analysis of the term from several perspectives, including the social and economic one, followed by its application to the given situation: the European Union-Chinese relations. In this regard, given time and space constraints, we shall limit the research to only two types of cooperation: economic and political and security-related cooperation. The final chapter of the paper shall also refer to several elements of discontent within this relation, such as the arms embargo, the disrespect for human rights in China and the unstable situation of Taiwan. However, these elements of discontent shall only be referred to when necessary, leaving a deeper analysis of them to a future academic endeavor.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Globalization, Cooperation, Trade, Arms embargo, Human rights
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ganijonovich Jalilov JAMSHID
 

The main goal of the paper, to discuss motivational methods in industry enterprises and consumers of production of industrial enterprises. Motivational methods will divide two big groups. Each of big groups include different motivational methods. The first group of motivational methods is complex of stimulating factors, means, key factors and stimulus promoting a better and effective work of enterprise working person.the 2nd-group methods of motivation is complex of factors, means, key factors and the stimulus stimulating consumers of production of food industrial enterprises.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Motivation, Motivational methods, A behavioral method of motivation, An administrative method of motivation
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Meral KAGITCI, Oana Gabriela SPIRIDON
 

The financial crisis revealed serious imperfections in the integrity of the financial system, exposing major cases of fraud and conflict of interest. This integrity deficitis a cause for con-cern,given the roles of the information in the decision making process and on the financial-market. Further more, the European audit system has been questioned following the fact that the quality of audits has been criticised by the investors. These events have revealed the failure of the auditing system to deliver true independent assurance, being based in many cases by a certain degree of conflict of interests.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Audit, Consulting, Risk, Big four, Financial crisis
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Radu-Daniel LOGHIN, Crina SERIA
 

In recent years global finance has seen the emergence of Islamic finance as an alternative to the western secular system. While the two systems posses largely similar concepts of social equity and well-being the major divide between them rests in the distinction between divine and natural law as a source of protection for the downtrodden. As communication barriers between the Arabic and Anglo-European accounting systems start to blur, the question posed for the practitioners as to what constitutes a source of equity becomes more and more relevant. Considering the case of Islamic countries, besides internally-generated and acquired goodwill Islamic sources of social equity such as zakat also provide a source of social equity. For the purpose of this paper, two models pertaining to value relevance are tested for a sample of 56 companies in 6 accounting jurisdictions with the purpose of identifying the underlying sources of social equity revealing that zakat disclosures marginally improve the accuracy of the model.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Goodwill, Shariah, Emerging markets, Zakat
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Florin-Alexandru LUCA, Ana Iolanda VODĂ, Dumitru FILIPEANU
 

In this article, we aim at highlighting the benefits of international trade on economic growth and development. In the first part of the paper, we will outline the seminal theories in the doctrine of international trade. In the second part, we will focus on current developments in the exports and imports of goods and services. We will also consider several indicators meant to emphasize the various aspects of research. Our approach is a transversal-comparative one and static models pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: International trade, Absolute advantage, Relative advantage, Revealed comparative advantage index
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Florin-Alexandru LUCA, Corina Anamaria IOAN
 

Currently Romania is in the process of regionalization whose foundations were laid in the "Green Paper regional development in Romania", elaborated under the aegis of the EU Delegation in our country. Regional development is a defining concept of EU construction and at the same time it constitutes a monitoring parameter of any country that wishes to join this structure. Not incidentally, one of the most important directions of the European Commission is called "Regional development and social cohesion”. Against the background of regional development trends, the brand of the region is the one that will make the difference. The concept of branding applied to countries, cities and regions began to be used in the mid-90s in order to support these geographical areas in their fierce competition in the competitive environment. In this era of "super-brands" is nothing unusual to consider a city, a country or a region as being a successful brand.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Brand, Local Brand, Regionalization, European Integration
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Cătălin MAICAN, Radu LIXĂNDROIU
 

New technologies based on the Internet offer to scientists the possibility of finding scientific information faster, allowing academic institutions to provide more resources to improve their presence on the Internet. We believe that the Internet offers the possibility of publishing but also it represents a support in scientific communication, making the performance of the universities or research centers to be better reflected. The Internet enables collaboration and dissemination of scientific information very quickly, in large areas, managing penetration of education and research in developing countries at very low cost, also enhancing the social role of scientists. Publication of scientific information through traditional methods (books, magazines, collections of articles, etc.) is far surpassed by electronic publishing since online offers the most cost effective way to boost academic missions of teaching, research or technology transfer.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Web ranking, Web visibility, Romanian Universities
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI
 

The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments). The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Competence, Occupational mismatch, Over-education, Over-skilled, PIAAC
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ionela MANIU, George C. MANIU
 

Over the last decade the higher education institutional framework suffered a major transformation:the increasing influence of market competition on academic life - “marketization”.Consequently, HEI attention is increasingly focused on attracting high quality (human) resources and students. Such context demands a deeper understanding of students’ decision making process for HEI. Literature on higher education management provides a large number of models, which attempt to provide an understanding of student buying behavior and how they select a university. Based on literature review, this paper explores different university choice models (economic, status attainment, combined) that analyze the student behavior as consumers in the higher education marketplace and suggests a new one, considering the phases of the decision making process and the factors that influence university choice decision. Finally, implication of factors in different phases of the decision process are discussed.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Higher educational institutions (HEI), University choice process, Student’s behavior, Combined models
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Marilena MARIN, Alina POPESCU
 

In this study, we have decided to do an analysis of consciousness, thought and religion through the prism of the concept of freedom. The authors of the European Convention on Human Rights agreed to protect not only the private and family life of the individual, his/her correspondence and residence but also his/her inner self, i.e. thought, conscience and religion that he/she chooses. Art. 9 of the Convention grants every person the freedom of thought, conscience and religion and the right to manifest beliefs and religion. Religious beliefs cannot be limited to the major religions, but what is certain is that religion must be identifiable.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Human rights, Freedom of thought, Conscience, Religion
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Marilena MARIN, Alina POPESCU
 

Various studies have been written about human rights and freedoms. Addressing this issue appears to be within everyone’s reach and everyone seems to be good at launching discussions about human rights and freedoms. When we are given the opportunity of collecting information about these concepts or of expressing a point of view, we should first refer to the concept itself, as researched by scholars, and then see how these studies can be found in practice, in everyday life. Otherwise, purely theoretical studies and Abstract: analyzes do not have any sense; do not produce any effect, facts which would render them useless. In this paper we aim at analyzing the concepts of legal obligation, of ensuring and protecting the human rights, viewed as a whole, as a unit, just as an idea is perceived. Thus, we are going to place human rights and freedoms in relation to legal normativity, to theory and their legal regulation on the one hand, and, on the other hand, we are going to focus on the materialization and implementation of these concepts, particularly within the national borders, but also in the European Union.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Human rights, Human freedoms, Legal obligation, European Union
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ştefan MATEI
 

A winery with a marketing-oriented strategy is capable to understand the configuration of a marketing mix (with its implications, opportunities and costs) and to effectively compete with other wine producers in today’s quasi-saturated, complex and challenging wine industry. Such a winery is also capable to attain its aspirations and objectives through a thorough understanding of customers’ needs and wants. The scope of this paper is to look within today’s wineries and analyse the marketing-oriented strategy they adopt as well as the promotional mix they rely on.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Wine industry, Wine marketing, Promotional mix, 4Ps, 8Ps
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Antonia MATEI
 

Commemorative journalism has become a key element in shaping the national identity, as well as in keeping and preserving the collective memory of a community or nation. This article analyzes, by means of the framing theory, the way that written press reflected over a 3 years period, between 2009 and 2011, the process of commemorating the Romanian Principalities Union Day. The research focused on January 24th due to its great importance to the Romanian’s history, both from a political and an identity perspective. The analysis showed that 19 frames were used in relation to this commemoration, almost half of the articles employing political related frames and proving that media didn’t focus on the historical data or commemorative rituals, but rather on the political confrontations and debates.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Commemoration, Commemorative journalism, The framing theory, Media frames
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andreea (BURDUF) MIERLARU
 

Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, my purpose is to analyze its applicability to the current economy. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time, as economic policy of internal relations between capital and labour and protectionism inside future Europe lead by Germany as international relations economic policy. The international financial crisis has given rise to several types of protectionism in trade and investment. Protectionism was and still is a phenomenon of the global economy, protectionist measures appearing in the UE.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Protectionism, National economy, Economic development
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Petruta MIHAI, Alexandra IOANID, Paula VOICU
 

The forecast can be defined like approximately of the unknown events from the future; this thing is necessary because of the existence of some unknown events, but this events play an important role in taking some decisions. It is obvious that the uncertainty's elimination is not possible, so the forecast is a tool who tries to minimalize this uncertainties. The forecast's importance in the electrical energy management is very important. The forecast of the energy's request presumes the estimation of this request's characteristics: size, time evolution, the request's structure, and so on. The forecast of the electrical charge is a tool of a modern EMS.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Electrical energy, Mathematical model, Forecast, Consumption
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Ina MITU, Adriana TIRON TUDOR
 

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recent research litarature regarding public sector inter-institutional combinations. Based upon a sample of 51 articles published in 2010-2013 in four databases (Science Direct, Springer Link, Wiley Online Library and Sage), this study summarizes and analyses the approaches found. In the light of an in-depth empirical research the article looks at the issues raised by the public sector inte-institutional combinationsbygrouping the sample usingthe folowing criteria: year of publication, research methodology, field, the mentioning of New Public Management(NPM) concept, theory and geographical area studied.The results reveal the fact that the predominant research methods used are: case study and statistical methods. The vast majority of papers analyze public institutions combinations of local public administration and investigate public sector combinations from Europe. Additionally, the majority of studies from the sample mention the concept of NPM and the institutional theory is mentioned in five articles.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Public sector combinations, New Public Management, Institutional theory, Amalgamation, Merger
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mihaela D. NANU
 

This research is trying an approach on the risk concepts that appear when using inconsequently accounting policies and management techniques for controlling them. The increase of companies’ vulnerability, their size, the huge impact of technology, the global interdependence and competition, the environment awareness, too, are only a few of the factors which are drawing my attention on the issue of these risks and their management. Romania’s emerging economy is creating a favourable environment for building a business. The reaching of the established objectives is encumbered by this uncertainty that can be either a barrier or an opportunity for the profitability of the entity. It is envisaged the getting/obtaining of information regarding the state of the phenomenon under study, as anchored in the national economic reality, the exploitation of the information available in the field of interest that is being studied, as well as the exchange of information and good practices.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Positive analysis, Financial risk, Entity behavior, Accounting policies
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Dumitru-Cristian OANEA
 

The financial shifts encountered in the last decade, increase the importance of capital markets in emerging countries, which is also Romania’s case. The banking system was for a long period of time the main source of liquidity for the economy. Meanwhile, the situation is changing due to the importance that capital market has in financing the economy. Through this paper we analyze the transactions’ evolution made by financial intermediaries on Romanian capital market, by highlighting the Societies for Financial Services and Investments (SSIF). Based on this evolution, we identified the main significant differences and similarities between the SSIFs existing on the market.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Capital market, Financial intermediaries, Market capitalization
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Iulia PARA
 

The aim of this paper is to present our view on the spread of English as a global language / lingua franca; the invasion of Anglicisms in all languages, hence the problem of translationg, or not translating professional terms; common mistakes made by non-native speakers. This paper will not develop on the positive and on the negative consequences of the global spread of English, but on the necessity of learning it, as according to statistics, English is the most used instrument of communication in the world.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: English, Translation, Communication, Globalization, Language
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Daniela PÎRVU, Claudia TOLEA
 

The European public procurement system has a major role in ensuring the efficient spending of the public money and in promoting economic competitiveness. The legislative bases of the system are represented by harmonized European regulations, which aim to facilitate the application of the principles and freedoms enshrined in the EU Treaties. This paper presents the main aspects of the reform of the European public procurement system, aiming to make the procedures for awarding public contracts more transparent and open to all European companies and to streamline public spending for the procurement of goods, services and works.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Public procurement, Reform, Rules
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Stanislav PERCIC
 

This study aims at performing an econometric analysis of the credit expansion process and social welfare from a comparative perspective, with a focus on eight developing and advanced economies from Central and South-Eastern Europe (including the case of Romania). The author aims to better understand the real impact of the credit expansion process on social welfare through the financial dimension. In order to achieve this aim, the research seeks to analyze the short-term dynamics (from one quarter to the other) of the relationships between the total volume of credits given to the non-banking private sector by the credit institutions (highlighting thus the credit expansion process) and the GDP per capita and GDP per person employed (proxies for social welfare). The usefulness of the present study becomes higher given the fact that nowadays the socio-economic development is often assisted by a stronger and more acute crisis.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Credit expansion, Social welfare, GDP per capita, GDP per person employed
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mirela-Oana PINTEA, Melinda Timea FÜLÖP
 

The characteristic elements of the new economy require economic entities new performance standards that go beyond economics. These standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities. Globalization affects corporate governance reforms currently characterized by what we call corporate responsibility and transparency. Companies are pressed to provide in addition to financial information the non-financial information, which focus on social and environmental impact of their activities and the way sustainability related constraints are integrated into their strategy for achieving organizational success. This paper highlights the changes imposed by sustainable development on corporate governance regarding the increased information that stakeholders need and the way performance is seen, as a holistic concept. Today, corporations are challenged to meet through performance the values, interests and expectations of society. The main objective of a corporate governance system is to assure a sustainable growth of the company taking into consideration the new standards imposed by the requirements of sustainable development.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Corporate governance, Transparency, Responsibility, Performance
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Claudia- Cristina PLOSCARU, Claudiu-Cătălin MUNTEANU, Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA
 

Integrating corporate governance into brand management is fundamental for protecting shareholders, considering the increasing importance of brands in firms’ performance and the dissociation between shareholders and managers in most large and medium firms. This paper designs a corporate governance system model on a brand level, which takes into account preventive, simultaneous and retroactive governance. Moreover, we highlight the importance of transition management when changes to brand management come into question. Finally, we propose six corporate governance instruments for brand management: performance indicators, the brand marketing plan, periodic reports, the brand council, brand audit, and transition management.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Brand management, Corporate governance, Brand equity
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Daniela POPESCUL, Mircea GEORGESCU
 

Today, the high level of use and interaction of Social Media influences greatly the business environment which is thus exposed to a paradigm shift, where hierarchies fall apart and the communication and collaboration create wider and wider networks for the employees and all the partners of the organizations. All the economic sectors, including the tourism and services, are affected. In this spirit, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges that emerge from the contemporary Social Media evolution for promoting the tourism potential of a country or region. We have noticed changes facilitated by the Web 2.0 related technologies regarding the delivery of information, and the relationship with the modern tourist. According to this information, we have come to several conclusions and recommendations in order to increase the visibility and consumption of Romanian heritage in the 2014 -2020 time horizon.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Social Media, Innovative heritage consumption, Romanian Regional Operational Programme 2007 – 2013, Romanian Regional Operational Programme 2014 – 2020
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Manuela PRECUP
 

Handwriting remains an important skill in school activities. Schools need handwriting assessment tools to monitor children’s performance and to identify those who might need support. The Detailed Assessment of the Speed of Handwriting (DASH) is a recently developed tool with UK norms, which may be suitable for use in other countries. However, the focus of the current project is handwriting in Romania where no assessment tools are currently available. Previous study investigated construct validity by examining both age and gender. DASH was translated into Romanian and administered to 100 children from four community schools in Romania. The adapted DASH was suitable for Romanian children. Further data collection is needed to establish norms in Romania before the DASH may be usefully used in Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Speed, Handwriting, Children, Validity, DASH
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Tudor Andrei RĂDULESCU
 

Nowadays valuation has become an inherent part of business environment which has experienced dynamic changes in economic activity through mergers and acquisitions, organizational restructuring and repurchasing of shares. The dynamic centre of all these activities is valuation, whose methods are needed not only for accounting purposes, but to serve as information support to all stakeholders. Although there are many individual techniques of assessment businesses in difficulty, selecting the most suitable method of valuation is often difficult. The paper is a mini-guide that should be taken into account by all actors involved in the assessment of firms in difficulty when they pursue to carry out such activities. In this regard, we compare the financial and accounting aspects with the national regulation on insolvency, highlighting the usefulness or, where appropriate, the lack of consistency based on assessments completed to date. In the end we insist on the reconciliation of financial vision with the rule of law in order to simplify insolvency proceedings in Romania.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Business valuation, Insolvency
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Raluca Valeria RATIU
 

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has been promoting a worldwide accounting harmonization and convergence project for more than a decade now with the declared purpose to increase comparability of financial information worldwide. We conduct a historical and chronological analysis of the evolution of the Romanian accounting and audit regulations and their comparability to the international standards, following a period of more than two decades, post-communism until today. Romanian regulators have adopted many changes of the accounting regulations in a short period of time, moving from the International Accounting Standards (IAS) partial adoption, to the European Union (EU) directives, to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). These changes have had an impact on the listed companies which have applied them.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: International accounting standards, Goodwill, Regulations development, Romanian regulation
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Raluca-Mihaela SANDU
 

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review of green marketing, eco-friendly products and green consumers. Nowadays, awareness on different environmental problems increased significantly and it is of global concern to reduce negative impact on the environment. In relation to this, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, a new segment of consumers was introduced, the so called green consumers. Green marketing tries to adapt by putting in the center of attention theneeds of such a consumer. An increase of organic products exists in both parts, in demand and offer. To maintain the welfare of present and future generations, a sustainable development is essentially.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Green marketing, Eco-friendly products, Green consumers, Consumption
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Liliana SCUTARU
 

The paper analyses the situation of flows and stocks of the foreign direct investment received by Romania in the period 2003-2012 with an emphasis on the crisis and post-crisis periods, investments that are characterized by different trends in different time periods in terms of directing capitals to the economic sectors. There are also considered the fields of economic interest of the foreign investors in our country. The analysis performed in this respect reveals changes from one year to another, in terms of the foreign investors’ interest for certain economic activities, especially after the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, which resulted in their reorientation within the economic sectors.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Flows of foreign investments, Stocks of foreign investments, Economic sectors
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Silviu-Marius ŞEITAN
 

A possible European macroeconomic administrative pattern based on a higher administrative capacity of the macroeconomic system so that the portfolio of used administrative instruments fits the complexity of the system of transmission channels from the real economy, may be considered as solution for the macroeconomic administration of the problems caused by the current conjuncture. Within this context, the analysis will use as input the option of most EU member states to approach such pattern of the macroeconomic administration

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: System, Macroeconomic, Regional, Heterogeneity, Sustainability
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Irina SIMIONESCU (BARBU)
 

The last half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century represented the prologue of the development of the “knowledge society”, the transition from industrial economy to “high-tech economy”. All of us, at the level of families, firms, industries, national economies and the whole global system, live the most radical transformation in the history. There is a tendency to forget that, biologically, mankind has not changed much in the last 100 years, while environment and especially work environment has changed dramatically in the last decades. This change was mostly for the good. But some of these improvements were accompanied by unexpected side effects.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Work, Stress, Knowledge society, Institutional crises
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Roxana Mihaela SÎRBU, Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN, Anca DRAGHICI
 

In order to comply with the principles of development set by the European Union (EU) within Europe 2020 Strategy, the European society, as well as the Romanian society must become sustainable. The sustainability should be the guideline of development for countries, regions, corporations, small and medium enterprises, and citizens. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainable development of companies, and the decision making in view to socially responsible and sustainable investments. The aim of the study was achieved by conducting an analysis of the perceptions of 100 companies from Romania regarding sustainable development, corporate social responsibility and socio-responsible investments. The analysis resulted in a ranking of the domains toward which companies have directed the socio-responsible and sustainable investments. The following research methods were used in order to achieve the goal of the paper: quantitative and qualitative methods, including the monographic or descriptive method, the analysis and synthesis method, statistical research methods, including grouping, comparison, and the correlation analysis. Calculation and data processing were carried out by using Microsoft Excel.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Sustainable development, Socio Corporate Responsibility, Sustainable Company
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Silvius T. STANCIU
 

The new technologies, competition, consumer convenience and the lack of time for shopping are some factors that have encouraged the Romanian online retail food market. On the food market identifying the viable direction of development and business continuity represents a major concern for economic operators. For a new business online commerce is the most affordable and the fastest way to enter the market. The domestic online retail food market is estimated to reach 6 million euros in 2014. Studies carried out by specialized companies have identified the Romanian consumers' appetite for food shopping on the Internet. Although Romania is only at the beginning in online food market as compared to its European neighbours, experiments in other domestic sectors demonstrate the possibility of surprises in this domain. The article proposes a short analysis of the Romanian online food retail market, tendencies and opportunities in this new domain for local commerce.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: B2C e-commerce, Business Continuity, Food Retail, Groceries, Romanian Market
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Silvius T. STANCIU
 

The investment in the Romanian food sector represents an opportunity for foreign companies due to the available natural resources, to the large number of consumers or to Romania’s European status. Agriculture, food processing and marketing are characterized by different percentages of foreign investment. Romanian agriculture is characterized by a continuous foreign capital infusion. The recent farmland purchase liberalization will constitute a supplementary motivation for foreign investors. The article proposes a short assessment of foreign investment in the local food retail sector and it highlights the main points of interest for foreign investment. The materials used were: statistical data, information from national and European databases, official statements made by community and national bodies, articles and scientific papers, specialized media information.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Food, Agriculture, romanian food industry, Foodstuffs trade, Foreign direct investment
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU
 

Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial position into the public sector in Romania. In order to reach the proposed objective, an interpretative research methodology was used. The results of this study has pointed out that the prevalence of divergences between the national view versus IPSAS in terms of reporting the financial position into the public sector limits the informational value and its relevance both for the management of the entities and their stakeholders.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Public sector, Financial position, Limits, International Public Sector Accounting Standards Romania
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Mihaela ȘTEȚ
 

The study analyzes the impact of introduction of new technology framework in supply chain management in order to accomplish business process transformation, based on previous work directed on the effects of introduction and development of information and communication technology in optimization distribution processes. There have been revealed the main problems which represent the origins for different results obtained by companies in implementing same systems, starting from defining objectives, failures in leading people through change, software incompatibility problems. The paper presents a series of causes for failures in implementation and deployment of information technology in supply chain management, explaining why the anticipated performance improvements and financial benefits from technology investments are not reached.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Technology, Information, Supply, Chain, Management
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Roxana-Denisa G. STOENESCU
 

This paper focuses on the concept of country-of-origin and its effects on consumers’ product evaluation process. Given the increasingly competition in the context of a global market, nowadays it has become a difficult task to create and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Consumers rely on many elements in evaluating a certain product, but country-of-origin remains a powerful variable in terms of product image and perception. The purpose of this study is to examine both the advantages and risks involved in consumers’ evaluation process, linking the concept of country-of-origin with certain stereotypes created around it. The study is based on exploratory research, through the investigation of secondary data as a collection method. As results, research showed that a positive country image can compensate in terms of perception for a weak brand, suggesting that a predetermined opinion can substitute a quality searched for in buying a product. The article concludes with a discussion of directions and limits, as an impulsion for future investigation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Country-of-origin, Consumer behaviour, Quality perception, Brand image, Stereotypes
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Marta Christina SUCIU, Ana-Maria NEAGU, Liviu Mihail MATEESCU
 

The paper discusses briefly some modern visions of the topic of intercultural dialogue within the context of a multicultural education environment and pluralistic society. The main reason for choosing this topic is directly related to the globalization process that marks our existence today. Globalization might provide opportunities for education and for businesses. But it also addresses serious challenges as well. We believe that by supporting intercultural sensitivity and intercultural dialogue within the education system in the spirit of multicultural societies will generate mostly on the long-run benefits for both individuals and organizations. The paper provides mostly a theoretical perspective of intercultural dialogue that is complemented by some guidelines for an effective intercultural education with a focus on how and what kind of education should contribute to better prepare people to live in multicultural societies.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Intercultural sensitivity, Intercultural dialogue, Intercultural education, Diversity, Multicultural spaces
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Andronicus TORP, Zoltan Istvan MAROSY, Anca Alexandra PURCAREA
 

This paper argues that it is possible, based on the universal principles revealed by Quantum Physics, to construct an energetic profile of a human being, using the ElectroPhotonic Imaging/Gas Discharge Visualisation-camera, where different frequency domains are connected with different clusters of skills, competences, and qualities, and that the amplitude of the energy within these domains indicates how much the specific person manifests these skills, competences, and qualities. Furthermore, this measurement also indicates the persons stress and energy level. In this way it is possible to compare two or more people objectively and quantitatively, which may find use for example in a Recruitment & Selection situation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Quantum Physics, SHRM, Recruitment & Selection, Energetic Profile, Evaluation
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Dorin COSMA, Mihaela TRICULESCU
 

Danube River Basin has been frequently affected by floods in the last decades which often gained historical meanings, the latest being recorded in 2006 and 2013. The material losses were very high and on the Cetate-Dabuleni sector of the Danube river, after the floods of 2006 the dikes have been damaged and partially destroyed. In the end the Rast locality was almost total relocated. Following these events, we need to rebuild the flood defense infrastructure in the Lower Danube, but after the first assessment the costs are very high. With this paper we propose the ways of funding the flood protection works on the Lower Danube, research being done on the Cetate-Dabuleni Danube's sector.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Dams, Finance, Danube, Floods
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Tashmuratovich Eshmuradov ULUGBEK, Ismatovich Alikulov ABDIMUMIN
 

In this study we examine the selling process of farm enterprises,particularly, we will investigate the approach of improving the accounting of sales.The study also examines the factors associated with recognition of revenue in the phase of sale of goods and services of farm enterprises. The findings show that there are numerous mistakes in accounting of sales and financial statements. In addition, we conclude that the main contribution of IAS 41 is to provide a strong conceptual framework in agricultural accounting practice. However, this standard is mainly used in EU. In the study we try to find the ways of applying of IAS 41 in accounting system of farms of the region Samarkand.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Accounting, Farms, Primary accounting, Accounting of realization, Correspondence accounts
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Adriana RADAN UNGUREANU
 

The World is in a continuous change at the level of all its components including entrepreneurship, the most dynamic element of the business activity. Another direction of change comes from technologies called “key enabling technologies” and represents a revolution in using raw materials and shapes the entire industrial process, obtaining competitive advantages. This paper tries to find a realistic answer to the question: is it possible to follow the global trend of technologies and to foster them in Romania? A realistic picture supplied by statistical data correlated with elements of the national plan of research and development offers a more theoretical approach since practical examples are almost non-existent, but the potential to apply these ideas through entrepreneurship is promising. Meeting recommended goals from this paper, through cooperation between private companies, state and academies, creativity and innovation will boost new ideas for a better life in a healthier Romania.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurship, KET’s, Romania, R&D, Technology, Innovation
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandrina Cristina VASILE
 

The article intends to show how multinational companies gain market share and visibility by using the appropriate strategic communication. The study evaluate the base framework, analysis, tools, data sources, sets of improvement plans and results that some multinational companies obtain by using strategic communication. The analysed companies are American based mainly communicative corporations and it will be underlined the importance of communication in the current economic environment. The results will show how important strategic communication is along the information used and the strategic management in targeting the position in the market.

  • Type: Perspectice, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Strategic management, Strategic communication, Information, Multinational companies
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Cornelia VĂCEANU
 

This paper explores a causal relationship between employment rate and economic growth for European Union countries, in general, and produces a structural assessment of employment on the background of labour market dynamics. Economic growth is the key in economic theory and the main source of well-being and quality of life. Since the 2008 financial crisis, most European countries have experienced job shortage and unemployment problem, but today's European economic outlook is strengthening on the bases of a GDP growing momentum. Empirical data shows, regardless the GDP's moderate positive trend, the employment rate did not increase enough. Given this, the present analysis address the question: to what extent the employment rate is affected by economic growth?

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Economic growth, Labour force, Employment rate, Employment elasticity
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Alexandra VÎLCU
 

In our increasingly internationalized world, one of the main consequences is the creation of multicultural environments. This is a controversial issue, regarded either as an enriching experience, either as a threat to national identities. However, the “secret weapon” that most national minorities and immigrant communities seem to make recourse to is the one of cultural performance, in the form of events. After all, culture is the most pacifist and apolitical form of self-promotion. Managing cultural events with the purpose of raising awareness of a nation's own culture is in itself an example of good practice towards integration, and an exercise in creativity and cross-cultural management. In this article we will analyze concrete examples of cultural events organized by the Romanian diaspora and Romanian cultural institutions abroad. We will find out about the concepts behind these events, the way they have been managed, and the positive impact they have on the way that Romanian national identity is perceived.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Cultural events, Social integration, Immigrant communities, Romanian culture
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Roxana VOICU-DOROBANŢU, Aron JINARU, Alexandru CARAGEA
 

The experience of the past decades has shown that the key features that foster innovation and entrepreneurship are: a dense concentration of human talent, a competitive spirit, easy access to capital, and a supportive environment. It also notes that, to some extent, these can be replicated in and adapted to a wide variety of contexts, even in countries and regions with economies, politics and cultures sharply divergent from the Silicon Valley California generic model. In all these cases, innovative business accelerators are functional and located in areas with critical masses of talent and competitive spirit. In this theoretical paper we show that a network accelerator could be a solution for fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in less developed regions and for attracting further venture-capital investors. This work has been supported by SNF and UEFISCDI within the Romanian-Swiss Joint Research Project IZERZ0 142306 / 1.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurial ecosystem, Collaborative poles, Network theory
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Maria-Mădălina VOINEA
 

Accounting is one of the most important links in the economic system and must be supervised closely. The increasing globalization of capital markets demonstrates the need for uniformity of accounting, which is achieved by normalization and harmonization of Romanian accounting regulations. Romanian accounting is changing day by day since the early 1990s. This is the time when Romania is facing the national and international convergence or harmonization and conformity of national accounting regulations with the IAS/IFRSs. But, is not just our case. This process is followed by more and more countries, at international level, and all this for having some high quality accounting standards. The pace of change that Romania has suffered lately in this field is much faster than that of the development of economic performance. Joining the EU has long aimed the alignment with the regulations applied by countries that already had this step, the European Directives.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: European Directives IAS / IFRS, Harmonization, Conformity, National accounting regulations, International level process
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Raffaella ZANVETOR
 

This paper proposes an analysis of food products market in Romania and its importance in the national economy. Grain market is an important part of Romanian agrifood sector, which is constantly developing, especially after Romania's accession to the EU, cereals occupying more than 65% of the cultivated area of the country. Grain market analysis is necessary because of the multitude of problems facing this sector: the high degree of perishability of production; existence of increased competition on the domestic and international market; high degree of self-consumption in the individual farmers; territorial dispersion of supply, with large regional differences and seasonal fluctuations; the imbalance of domestic supply-demand that facilitates recourse to imports or increased exports; existence of a price system directly affected by international prices; obtaining products uncompetitive in international markets in terms of quality; organizational and functional deficiencies in taking domestic production market, etc.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: Agri food sector, Consumption, Farming, Romania, Rural, Organic
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Sorina D. BODIA
 

Talking about totemism in the XIX-th century is, in itself, a daring and original academic endeavor, since this type of social organization is still considered specific to primitive communities. Due to the studying at the same time of the structure and the essential elements that compound the totemic system and the study of citizenship/nationalism as a specific way of hierarchically organize the society of the XIX-th century states, a series of similarities arouse. So, I wandered if not in fact one can see and reevaluate the totemic system from the point of view of an archetype of human social organization. I aim to show that there are sufficient arguments to reconsider and rethink totemism and also the concept/institution of citizenship, beginning with the first half of the XIX-th century, in Romanian Principalities. From my point of view, gaining acceptance and understanding on this particular subject will improve the overall perspective on human evolution in time and finally to identify new ways of understanding and dealing with the current issues we face today.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: First half of the XIX-th century, Citizenship, Totemism, United Principalities
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 5
Viorella MANOLACHE, Henrieta Anişoara ŞERBAN
 

The present study evaluates a conceptual perimeter concerning the phenomenon of migration interpreted in the configurations found in movement and complex changes, describing the new migration indicated through the unlimited openings offered to an entire set of arguments related to citizenship, freedom and justice in contemporary political philosophy. The main argument unfolds from the parting of the ways with the phrase old migration where the attribute ”old” sends to a limited management of migration indebted to a dimensional approach (historical, behavioural, economic, social, etc.). The study notices that no country can remain outside the fluxes of international migration. This new migration has to its core the new migrant, part of an interpretative community and of a phenomenon of habitual rethinking, transforming subjective logic, influencing the generation of new social practices and suggesting the necessity of the moral approach of the phenomena of migration by liberal democracies.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 12th October, 2014
  • Keywords: New migration, Immigration, Emigration, Limited migration, Unlimited migration, Philosophical approaches
  • Received: 2nd August, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 8th October, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ibrahim ALMAASHI
 

The paper intends to present an analysis of the efficiency and the performance of health sector in Romania. The research efforts are based on the description of the operational mechanism and analyses of the financing or underfinancing of the above system. Romania has a significant issue in terms of poverty and fairness. Among EU States, it was ranked second in 2008 in terms of the share of the population exposed the risk of poverty, with a share close to the value of 23%, Latvia, with a rate of 26 %. Given this inequality, it would be advisable for the Government to devise specific policies in plane to ensure access for the poor population to health care. Theoretically, Romania provides such protection through the exemption of those registered in the program concerning the guaranteed minimum income from the payment of contributions and of copayments. However, in practice this mechanism is insufficient.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Public policy, Health sector, Functional analysis, Financing.
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ileana (BĂDULESCU) ANASTASE
 

The paper addresses issues related to education management operation that determines the principles and requires an interdisciplinary approach, studying events that occur in the decision to organize a determined pedagogical activity and the management of educational programs. Managerial leadership involves emphasis on ideas, on a systematic approach, on change, innovation strategy, proposing a method of analyzing the functioning of sustainable educational management and positive effects. In this context, the article provides the principles, functions, methods and rules that a school must comply in order to ensure a sustainable future.The teaching staff represents an inexhaustible managerial resource valued at its social ladder of the system and education program.In the content of the paper are highlighted prominent school organization management functions as steps preceding decision making of their training where are presented applied studies on financial issues facing directors of schools who seek solutions to them.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Educational, Method, Principles, Functions, Sustainable
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Mihaela-Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ
 

In the literature dedicated to strategic management there is no unitary vision of the authors regarding the sequence of actions that give content to the respective process and what their stages are. With all existing differences, the visions of different authors nevertheless observe the unitary logic of developing a series of actions. These actions begin with the competitive environment analysis in which the organization operates and with the establishment of its strategic mission and they end with the performance evaluation after the strategy has been applied and, if appropriate, with the reconsidering of this strategy and the making of the necessary corrections to it. Such a basic structure of the process is adopted in most organizations that practice the strategic management. But noticeable differences appear in the degree of the formalization of the process and in the involvement of different managerial levels in the designing and detailing of its components.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Performance, Model, Strategy, Competitive advantage, Mission
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Amalia DUŢU, Bogdan GEORGESCU, Mihaela DIACONU
 

During the last few years, the entire business environment has changed, being characterized by volatility and discontinuities. Change has become so intense that companies have lost, on a large extent, their visibility and the strategic planning capacity. In order to operate in such a dynamic environment, companies should be flexible in the strategical, organizational and operational points of view. The higher education institutions are not an exception. Universities have to cope with this change. In this context, the adoption of market orientation approach and principles, which is a business’s concept and practice, may lead to a sustainable development and a higher adaptation capacity to change. Thus, the purpose of this study is to emphasise the approach of market orientation concept in the particular context of higher education institutions and to display some general factors that can intensify or inhibit the market orientation adoption, labelled as antecedents, but also the consequences of market orientation implementation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: GDP, Market orientation,Higher education institutions, Approaches, Antecedents
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Meral (IBRAIM) KAGITCI, Mirela Elena NICHITA, Marcel VULPOI
 

The present article underlines the idea that tasking projects with economic potential fiscal tools will supply help for investments by the way of lending guarantees, equity and other risk-bearing which includes policy based on guarantees for European Social Funds. Except for the shown advantages of recycle funds over the long-terms, fiscal tools provide mobilization to investment in order to have access to market in line with Europe 2020 and unity priorities. More than that, those tools help a lot of spurs to have a good performance, which includes good fiscal discipline at the level of supported projects. In the view of the fiscal situation and the increasing poorness of social resources, fiscal tools are willing to have stronger role in unity policy within 2014-2020 programming period.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Cohesion policy, Inequity, Programming period, Convergence
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Meral (IBRAIM) KAGITCI, Mirela Elena NICHITA, Marcel VULPOI
 

The main idea of this paper consists in offering a general view regarding a comparative analysis between different EU countries on public debt and economic growth. In the meantime, this is the evidence that the annual shift of the public dues ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio are seen in a bad way and linearly associated with per-capita GDP increase. The conduits term through government`s obligation (level or change) is expected to have a big impact over the economical increased rate as: i) secret saving; ii) social investments; iii) all the productivity factors; iv) unlimited long-term nominal and real interest rate. From a political point of view, the results will bring basically arguments for dues reduction to support long-term increase prospect.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Public debt, Economic growth, GDP per capita, Fiscal adjustment
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ion Gr. IONESCU
 

International financial environment is characterized as consisting of free trade and especially from the free movement of the capital on the financial markets, so very favourable, which also led to the rapid development of global financial markets. We lack the ability to keep the peace (silence) for to counter the excesses of the financial markets. Without this ability, the global economy is exposed to the collapse. Financial capital enjoys a privileged position. He is more mobile than other factors of production and even more mobile than direct investment. Yet crises must be overcome. To support the arguments of this paper, we use a flexible methodology, starting from simple to complex, from theoretical to practical, from principle, to particularly, adding, specialty practice examples, from the international sphere, convinced that work-international banking must be healthy, able to generate profitable and dynamic business environments, safe for entrepreneurs and bankers, but also ordinary people.

  • Type: Perspective, Opininion and Commentary
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Crisis banking, Banking market,the Basel Committee, Financial System, Macroeconomic instability
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ion Gr. IONESCU
 

Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Deltaic environment, Fishing reservation, Black Sea coastline, Sustainable development, Protected areas
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
 

Media relations in sport mean maintenance of networks and positive relationships with people in the media to obtain positive media exposure for a sport product (informal and formal information sessions with media representatives). Because of the pervasive influence the media has on marketing success, sport marketers must make concerted efforts to create a positive relationship between their sport event and the media. They may accomplish this by providing the media with press releases, having news conferences, having media-day events (in which the media are invited to interact with the players, coaches, and administrators), providing media guides for the respective sport events and so on. Each of these activities promotes active involvement from the media, which will subsequently contribute to relationship building with the community.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Marketing communications, Media relations, Public relations, Sport marketing, New sport media
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Olimpia OANCEA, Mihaela DIACONU, Amalia DUŢU
 

In an economy with a strong concurential character, organizations must capitalize the integrated marketing communication in the most effective way, to ensure the creation and maintenance of long-term relationships with current and potential customers. Building and managing the relationships with customers can have a direct and favourable effect on the efficiency of an organization's communication efforts. The integrated marketing communication identifies with the nowadays market dynamics and learns the organizations how easy can be to prosper in an environment where changes occur in an alarming way. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the socio-demographic profile of the consumers of bread in Arges County, as well as the preferences and purchasing behaviour at the level of the market segments identified using the K-Means Cluster Analysis method.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Market segmentation, Consumer profile, Integrated marketing communication
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Laura-Maria POPESCU, Ileana NIȘULESCU
 

The work aims to indicate the methods and the determining factors through which accounting information users can influence the development of financial-accounting engineering. A series of defining elements were extracted, based on a study carried out on Romanian companies, concerning the manner of approaching creativity in accounting. Financial-accounting engineering occurred as a result of the pressure exercised by the accounting information users and of the desire to justify and underlie the company’s business and results as attractively as possible. Based on the collected information, a series of elements were outlined, showing that an important determining factor determinant of financial-accounting engineering is the users’ attitude towards the accounting information. Conclusions show, to a great extent, the confirmation of the initial assumptions, and the fact that the mechanism set off by the concerned individuals through what they excessively aim for uncovers vulnerabilities, and the management therefore acts to cover the users’ need for safety, by granting special dimension to certain balance sheet items.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Financial-accounting engineering, Users, Accounting information, Accounting practices
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ulyana V. SHCHURKO
 

The article is dedicated to the new conditions of countries’ development in the post-crisis period. Challenges to the cultural and socio-economic policy during last decade were analyzed. Religious factors are offered to be considered as important mechanisms of solving transition period problems, and at the same time as the causes of many conflicts in the world. It was offered to include those factors as inevitable elements into modern policy making process.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Cultural policy, Transition economies, Religious factors, Security
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Luciana SPINEANU-GEORGESCU, Elena RUSE, Daniel DANECI-PATRAU
 

Financial flows represent a reasonable basis for estimating the capacity of firms to generate cash and cash equivalents necessary to meet debt chargeability. If cash means actual monetary liquidity held in company’s cashier or in its bank accounts, cash equivalents represent "short-term investments, highly liquid, which are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of exchange. Over time, in an attempt to systematize the information regarding the structure, the origin and destination of the funds used by enterprise, liquidity setters concluded that variation can be explained by the action of three types of activities based on a functional classification, namely operating activities, financing activities and investing activities. The present paper aims to determine the importance and evolution of financial flows in an economic entity using the indirect method.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Analysis, Financial flows, Cash-flow
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Cristina SUCIU, Loghin GAGA
 

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have had, even in the economic crisis, a major contribution to the achievement of gross domestic product, to create jobs, to increase economic efficiency by stimulating competition through speed of adaptation to conditions and the adoption of new strategies, the ability to adapt to market requirements. Although, at the beginning of the economic crisis in Romania have been suspended or canceled several hundred thousand companies, starting in 2012 it is observed a revival of SMEs. We could say that post crisis period, thanks to measures in support of SMEs, is the beginning of an economic boost of SMEs in Romania. Cluster analysis a multivariate analys is technique, which includes a number of algorithms for classifying objects in to homogeneous groups. Analysis of effectiveness of SMEs from Romania using cluster analysisis a new method of economic analysis which enables an analysis, mathematical methods, regional development of SMEs and increasing their competitiveness.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), Efficiency,Cluster, Analysis, Dendogram
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Adina TRANDAFIR
 

From 1st January 2015, in the European Unionwill enter into force a new VAT regime for business-to-consumer suppliers of telecoms, broadcasting and electronic services. This regime will have an impact on businesses engaged in the supply of certain products and services over the Internet. This article is a literature review. It is aimed to provide an analysis of the European VAT regime applicable to electronic services and clarify some key issues like: what are e-services, what are the changes and how the businesses are affected by these new rules. The paper also approaches issues such as: the change of the rules regarding VAT place of supplying and the introduction of the VAT Mini One Stop Shop (MOSS). The main conclusion is that the change in the place of supplying rules will serve to negate the VAT advantages associated with Internet companies which locate their invoicing functions in a Member State that is different from where they locate their substantial activities.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: VAT, E-services, Mini One Stop Shop (MOSS)
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Mihai VIŞAN, Mihaela MARTIN
 

In this study, we focused on the legal and social situation of the Banat Jews after the Union from 1918, when they were not recognized the citizenship acquired even since the time of the monarchy. Firstly we sketched the citizenship legislation adopted by governments in Bucharest, and the discriminatory laws on the naturalization (obtaining the Romanian citizenship) of Jews. Further on, we briefly presented not only the way this legislation on citizenship was applied, but also the economic discriminatory legislation within inter-war Banat counties. Our investigation shows the special position of the Jews from Banat caused by their pursuit by police, being constantly accused of disloyalty towards the Romanian State. The study presents the material, human and financial effort of this ethnic group to support the Romanian front and their co-nationals deported to Transnistria. Finally, it is shown the contribution of local and national personalities to stop the deportation of the BanatJews to concentration camps in Poland: Rabbi Alexander Safran, Metropolitan of Transylvania Balan, Radu Lecca and Franz von Neuman from Arad.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: War dictatorship, Anti-Semitism, Zionism, Antievreism, Confessions
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Elena G. ZAMCU
 

Identifying and developing talents is, in the context of the current economy, a necessity which implemented in the strategy of the company , may confer a competitive advantage. Common for multinational companies, the talent management could represent an advantage for SMEs, too. The purpose of talent management is to create an adaptable and flexible company to motivate its own human resources, all of these in order to develop the overall business. Starting from the definition of talent management that includes the idea that attracting, developing and retaining employees with a high qualification represents the very essence of talent management, we consider that it is applied by the Romanian SMEs but yet, it is not specified in their strategies. This paper tries to demonstrate the importance of continuous training for attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified employees, as a good start in implementing talent management.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Human resources management, Talent management, Motivation, SMEs
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Raluca M. BĂLĂ
 

This paper aims to analyze the evolution of the private consumption structure in Romania in the last twenty years surprising three main periods that influenced the composition of economic welfare of romanian citizens: the transition period to the market economy after the fall of communist regime, the period of economic stabilization and sustained growth and the period of financial and economic crisis. The analysis reveals the modifications in the structure of private consumption throughout the three main phases surprised in the Romanian economy and shows the influence of these changes on the economic welfare of the population.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Private consumption, Household consumption, Economic welfare, Structure analysis
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Dana BALAS-TIMAR
 

Advances in Physics and Mathematics have proven that our complex world does not obey anymore the standard linear modelling systems rules. This paradigm seems to take over much of the scientific research in all sciences. Psychologists, no matter what their orientation is, are striving to create global models that can explain and predict human behaviour and emotions. In this quest, there have been elaborated many meta-analyses that gather relevant findings in order to create a conceptual framework of understanding human behaviour and affect. This paper presents arguments for sustaining the curvilinear relationships hypothesis that occur between variables (job satisfaction, job performance, age) in an organizational context research. Conclusions set up a new conceptualization of the variable dynamic relationship inferences in Psychology.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Organizational psychology, Dynamic systems, Chaos theory, Nonlinearity
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ionela Corina CHIRILEASA (DEDIȚĂ)
 

In the context of the market economy, Suceava, urban development pole of the North-Eastern Region, defines more clearly its social–economic coordinates that tend to enroll it. If the commercial function led to the acquisition of an urban state and to the future development of the city until the interwar period, the 5th- 9th decades of the 20thcentury induce significant functional changes in the evolution of Suceava as an urban center. Nowadays, after a period of economic transition, marked by the radical industrial restructuring, Suceava defines more clearly the role of the urban center for services, which exerts a powerful attraction on its influence area. This article intends to analyze the socio-economic functional changes that mark Suceava nowadays compared to previous periods and to identify the factors responsible for generating this change.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Economic restructuring, Services, Exploitation of natural resources, Microenterprises
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alina CIOMOŞ, Corina ILIN
 

Climate changes’ effects are already present in our day to day life. The EU and national public authorities established strategies and public policies in order to enhance a more desirable behavior of the companies and citizens with regard to recycling and use of green energy. The companies try to make production choices that are more eco-friendly and to sustain campaigns helping cities to become “greener”. The environmentalist citizens occupy a growing share in the general population and are more vocal for convincing the others. But even with the “on the wave” eco-friendly attitude, is it done enough? The article will present some conclusions for Romania. The perspective taken is interdisciplinary and tries to draw a short review of the state of the art achievements in greening Romania’s economy, at macroeconomic level, while proposing new marketing approaches for enhancing further sustainable development, through promoting change in the companies and consumers attitudes and behaviors.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Climate changes, Green economy, Sustainable growth, Sustainable consumption, Social marketing
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Laura Adriana COJOCARU (ALIONESCU)
 

Accounting for current assets mainly aims to obtain useful information on the management of their best in order to make management decisions. Counting efficiency of these assets, their importance, provides improved performance of the entity. In this paper we want to study the degree of implementation of policies and accounting treatments on the current assets in the specific construction economic entities, the problems of implementation and thus better addressing their theoretical and procedural to improve the information provided by financial statements. Due to the importance of proper conduct of business owned entities, accounting current assets should result in optimal and efficient control of current assets.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Current assets, Accounting policies, Stock, Claims, Money
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Andrei-Răzvan CRIȘAN
 

Nowadays, the accounting harmonization in the public sector has become a key problem in the accounting world. The need for harmonization is generated by the globalization process, both in the private and public sector. This is the reason why the awareness of international bodies for public sector accounting harmonization is significantly raising. The aim of the paper is to compare the information disclosed by the Romanian legal framework to information disclosed by IPSAS 1 – Presentation of Financial Statements, in order to determine the extent to which Romanian laws took the provisions of this standard that is considered by researchers a significant point of modern accounting. The authors try to establish the extent to which the central Romanian regulations have taken the main provisions from IPSAS 1. The purpose is to discover the similarity degree between these two regulations. This study is useful for the authorities empowered to publish regulations because it helps to determine the most important omissions from IPSAS 1 and find the best solutions for improving the future legislation, in order to be as close as possible to IPSAS.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Similarity, Dissimilarity, IPSAS Romania
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Otilia DIMITRIU, Marian MATEI
 

The world today is witnessing an explosion of technologies that are remodelling our entire reality. The traditional way of thinking in the business field has shifted towards a new IT breakthrough: cloud computing. The cloud paradigm has emerged as a natural step in the evolution of the internet and has captivated everyone’s attention. The accounting profession itself has found a mean to optimize its activity through cloud-based applications. By reviewing the latest and most relevant studies and practitioners’ reports, this paper is focused on the implications of cloud accounting, as the fusion between cloud technologies and accounting. We addressed this innovative topic through a business-oriented approach and we brought forward a new accounting model that might revolutionize the economic landscape.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Cloud accounting, Cloud computing, Accounting software
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Victoria FIRESCU
 

This paper, by means of the model of correlation coefficient between the two variables, this paper tests the intensity of the correlation between the three traditional financial indicators: the return on assets (ROA), the return on equity (ROE), the financial leverage (LF) and the indicators reflecting the change of the exchange rate (the total shareholder return-TSR and the price-to-earnings ratio -PER). The empirical research is addressed both transversely (on a sample of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) wich have as their object of activity manufacturing pharmaceuticals and longitudinally (for the 2011-2012 period) based on the positive research method. The results show that between the stock exchange indicator (TSR, PER) and the aforementioned traditional financial indicators (ROA, ROE, LF) there is a weak connection, which means that the traditional financial indicators calculated for the Romanian companies cannot anticipate the investors’ expectations on the future benefits.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Financial indicators, Stock exchange indicators, Correlation, Value creation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Vasile GORGAN, Cătălina GORGAN
 

During recent years, on the background of increased competition, changing demographics in the population and declining enrollments, a paradigm shift occurred in the higher education system where universities begin to realize the importance of student satisfaction and market-type mechanism have been introduced even in countries previously characterized by a high degree of government control. Our study aims to assess the satisfaction of students who graduated from the Faculty of Accounting and Management Information Systems of the Bucharest University of Economic with Bachelor's degrees in 2012 and 2013. A survey research was conducted aiming to assess the overall satisfaction through questions pertaining to global fulfilment of expectations related to undergraduate accounting program, the perceived value of the program and the willingness to recommend the accounting program to a close friend. The key determinants of the overall satisfaction level were analyzed and discussed.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Student satisfaction, Higher education, Quality
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandra Luciana GUȚĂ
 

Organizational learning is a significant aspect in every organization that aims for performance. Thus, identifying ways of managing organizational learning becomes relevant. Through this paper, we aim to identify and detail some ways of managing organizational learning from the literature and to propose some ways of managing it, based on the literature. The paper is original and innovative through our analysis of the literature, interpretation of the findings from the literature and through proposing certain new elements that are relevant for managing organizational learning. By managing organizational learning we refer to means, actions, strategies, practices and tools through which the process of organizational learning may be facilitated or the organizational learning capability may be enhanced. The results highlight the practices and tools identified in the literature. The paper is useful for both decision makers and employees who are interested in identifying and applying ways of managing organizational learning.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Organizational learning, Organizational learning management, Practices, Instruments
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Niculina KARACSONY
 

In Romania, the issue of child offender, who is not criminally culpable because of age related reasons raises serious difficulties both in preventing and limiting this phenomenon, and in providing effective measures for rehabilitation and social integration for this target group. Byadopting the ,,Convention on the Rights of the Child’’, Romania hasaligned with the rest of the countries involved in respecting the international law regarding the protection of children’s rights. However, theinterventions aiming atspecific practices of these cases have failed to outline a strategic line that defines the type of approach: punitive or restorative? In this context, this article describes the laws, principles, authorities, services and specific interventions for children who break the law, who are not criminally liable. For those who are interested in such community problems, this article would representan excellent study on Romania's position both with regard to welfare policies (purely assistance) and in relation to workfare policies (involvement).

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Child, Crime, Laws, Principles, Authorities,Services and specific interventions
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Radu-Daniel LOGHIN
 

In respect to financial reporting, statutory accounting standards and regulations form only a part of the normative landscape. Considering the case of common law countries, besides these classic sources of norms and practices there is an alternative base for exercising the professional judgement of the accountant, the case law precedents which drive and supplement in cases accounting regulations. For the purpose of this paper, goodwill accounting is explored from a normative perspective which draws from case law precedents in Zimbabwe and South Africa, two emerging common law countries which share a rich common law heritage, resulting in a set of findings relevant to the understanding of the nature of goodwill as well as an understanding of the factors which lead to early adoption of International Accounting Standards.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Goodwill, Common law, emerging markets, South Africa
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Florentina D. MATEI
 

In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013) to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: European funds, Rural tourism, Sustainable development
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Dumitru-Cristian OANEA, Stefan-Bogdan VASILESCU
 

The financial shifts encountered on last decade, increase the importance of capital markets in developing countries, such that capital market become an important source of long-term financing. During the time, economic literature and also practitioners recognized the important role of the banking system as a supplier of liquidity in an economy. Despite this, in the last year, the capital market tries to help in diffusing the stresses on the banking system because, it is able to match long-term investments with long-term capital. Through this paper we want to analyze all transactions made on Romanian capital market from 1995 until present. Even if, it is hard to capture all aspects and particularities of all transaction, we want to identify the main patterns encountered on it: person who invest (residents vs non- residents), volume, value, transaction type (sell or buy), market capitalization, financial crisis and other macroeconomic events. In our opinion these are just several variables which can reveal us the real developing stage of Romanian capital market, and future trend, so this is a topic which worth to be deeply analyzed.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Capital market, Financial transactions, Market capitalization, Financial crisis
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Dimi OFILEANU
 

The aim of this work is to determine the influence that exports of footwear industry have on the turnover of the sector. In the work, a period of 9 years is taken into consideration: from 2004 to 2012, establishing an econometric model of analysis of the connection between the turnover and direct exports of footwear industry in Romania. Based on the analyzed empirical data, the work answers to the following question: what is the influence that exports of footwear industry have on sector’s turnover? In addition to specifying the econometric model which describes the connection between the two variables, we also test the validity of the model and the intensity of the connection between the two variables.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Simple regression, Correlation, Footwear industry, Exports, Turnover
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Oana Mihaela MARIOARA (ORHEIAN), Ioana Gabriela GRIGORESCU
 

This article makes an analysis of the main regulations used by the credit rating agencies on the financial market. The article describes the main specific legislation on credit rating agencies existing on the market. Credit rating agencies are issuing independent opinions on the reliability of an entity, of a debt, of financial obligations, or of a certain financial instrument. The credit ratings issued by the credit rating agencies established in the European Union are analysed by investors, debtors, issuers and governments, helping all these entities in making any decisions on investments and financing. These ratings may also serve as reference for determining their own funds, necessary to ensure the solvency or reference helping the investors in assessing any risks related to their investment activities. Rating agencies and the products they offer on the international capital market are subject of various researches, which mainly refer to market structure and organization, to the architecture of agencies` s rating systems, to the rating functions, to the controversies concerning rating activity, the role of rating agencies and rating quality.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Regulation, Directive, Credit agency
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Cătălina-Livia POPA
 

This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Quality of Life, Economic Development, Quality Function Deployment Method
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ionela-Valeria POPESCU, Valerică OLTEANU
 

Regardless of the economic situation of a country at a given moment, luxury tourism is an activity constantly practiced by the people with substantial material resources, even if their number may fall or rise depending on the economic impact had periods of crisis on areas of activity in which they operate. The work aims to feature overview luxury tourism, starting with target groups which is addressed, its definition, the expression of consumer behavior of luxury tourist packages and trends that this form of tourism has in its development, now and in the years to come. Research shows a habit of consumption of tourists with high material possibilities, manifested by orientation toward expensive holidays, to express social status they have managed to achieve, to offer them unique experiences and help to their presentation in the society as successful people, with a high level of life.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Luxury tourism, Behavior of purchase, Consumer habit, Trends in tourism, Luxury tourist package
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Vasile Ionel POPESCU, Gabriel MIREA
 

Although it was released in the summer of 1990, the concept of reengineering returns in actuality, because in the social and economic conditions that we are experiencing at the moment, to face the increasingly fierce competition more and more companies have to resort to redesign the processes. Throughout this article, after a brief introduction, we will present the factors that contributed to the occurrence of reengineering; trying to highlight what involves this concept, the characteristics of the processes resulted from the reengineering, the importance and methods to prepare a process map, and the method to launch the process redesign. Finally we have issued several opinions and have made a number of recommendations that will lead to achieving a qualitative leap targeted by the companies which resort to reengineering.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Process map, Process, Reengineering, Redesign, Change
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandra Elena M. POȘTOACĂ
 

This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for financial services category in Romania in 2013. It also emphasizes the main differences in terms of media communication between 2012 and 2013: what was the media investment increase or decrease in the financial services category, the media investment trend for each sub-category: banks/ banking services and money transfer, top players in the market and the new hierarchy, TV budget share and the trend versus 2012, the main banking products communicated on TV and the visibility in the financial services category for each one of them. Although the focus of this article is the TV analyses for the financial services spenders in 2013, the paper also shows relevant data about the non – TV media channels: the budget investment for radio, print and online and the supports used for each media. The TV analyses will reveal which financial provider had the most efficient strategy, the type of products most advertised by each player, media mix used by each one of them with particularities in terms of TV placement and positioning in program breaks, type of special projects developed by some of them (if case) and other important findings about TV strategy for this particular category.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Media, TV analyses, Banking, Media landscape, Media indicators
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Roxana Cristina RADU, Eliza Adela VOICU
 

An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Promotion, Employment, Discrimination, Appointment in a public office
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU)
 

The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries), with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Exchange rate, Central bank, International monetary fund, Foreign exchange market, European monetary system
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU), Laurentiu DROJ
 

Exchange rate fluctuations of a currency generate currency risk to the extent that it isused to make international transactions. These operationsare subject to currency risk, as exchange rates change frequently from one period to another, and on the other hand, speculation in the foreign exchange market affect the exchange rate through interventions they perform. This paper explores a topic of great interest, especially as exchange rate fluctuations and the uncertainty regarding the future of a currency relative to major currencies is a big problem for most economic actors. Regardless of whether they are importers or exporters or have significant debt currency depreciation or appreciation causes significant losses. Proper management and active currency risk is a way to reduce the damage caused by exchange rate fluctuations.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Currency, Currency risk, Importers, Exporters, Appreciation, Depreciation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU, Teodora Viorica FARCAS, Adriana TIRON TUDOR
 

The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Transparency, Literature Review, Public Sector, Good Governance, E-governance
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Silvius T. STANCIU
 

The paper investigates the evolution of Romanian milk market in the European market context: primary production, milk processing, supply and demand, consumption, prices and quality; marketing, the domestic market. Deficiencies in the dairy sector has created conditions for import rising. Last year brought about significant increases in imports of raw milk, decreased milk product supplied by local farmers and keeping the main positions of the processors on the market. Domestic consumption of milk per capita remains low in comparison with the European average. The reduction of milk quotas will be a challenge to domestic producers. Development of associations of producers may be a viable option to ensure the continuity of business for the Romanian farmers.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Milk, Production, Processing, Market, Consumption
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Silvius T. STANCIU
 

Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Beef, Production, Consumption, Trade
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ana-Maria STOICA (MIHALI)
 

The aim of the present paper is to highlight the way in which communication reflects in the negotiation process. Negotiation is known as the oldest means of communication that leads to the development of human relationships, continuously adjusting them to the values that are imposed when an agreement is desired regarding their observance/enforcement. It is unanimously accepted that negotiation is carried out essentially through communication. During the negotiation process information and knowledge is transmitted and received by the participants. The messages that are thus generated are subsequently used in arguments and counterarguments and serve to the purpose of imposing the transmitter’s interests in the content of the agreements that might be reached with the receiver. The way in which communication is carried out in the process of negotiation helps to reveal feelings and concerns, attitudes, convictions, beliefs, temperament and character traits, taking up an offensive or defensive position, as well as other aspects of the interlocutors’ behavior. The above-mentioned aspects allow stating that during the negotiation process one deals with oral or written communication, non-verbal communication, as well as with the so-called „marketing communication”.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Communication, Marketing communication, The negotiation process
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL
 

Globalization has set up a new era of international trade flows and implicitly international competition. This is best understood by analyzing the rise and fall within certain industries. The Global Value Chains (GVC) framework has emerged from its theoretical origins to become a major paradigm used by several international organizations. A detailed scrutiny of GVC highlightsthe manner in which new patterns of production, international trade and employment shape prospects for development and competitiveness.The purpose of the article is to address the important role of the textile sector in national economy development. Firstly, the paper addresses the presentation of textile industry at global, European and national level. Then, it presents a competitiveness sectorial approach and the analysis of innovation in textile industry.Finally, it is presented the value chain for the textile industry in Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Textile industry, Global Value Chain, Competitive advantage, Clusters, Romania
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Adrian TĂNASE, Diana TĂNASE
 

This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Labour market, Labour force, Productiveness
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Sergiu TEODORESCU, Aurelia PREDA
 

The gymnosophy philosophy as a way to substantiate gymnastics; gymnastics and gymnosophy’s etymological explanation; the gymnosophy, considered "the wisdom of the naked" becomes, at some point, the philosopher's way of health and thereby gymnastics becomes practical way of obtaining health , nudity as a means of verifying the execution of exercise; gymnastics supplemented diet since antiquity; spirituality is found in bodily perfection of the gods of antiquity” "to pray for a sound mind in a healthy body"; legislating in antiquity, to gymnastics, to maintain health; physical activity, characteristic of contemporary, induces disease; sport, as a healthway, acute need of every man.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Gymnastics, Gymnosophy, Health, Philosophy
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Adriana Radan UNGUREANU
 

In 2010 the European Competitiveness Report showed some insights about the importance of the five key enabling technologies which are nanotechnology, biotechnology, micro-systems, advanced materials and photonics, emphasising the role of these technologies for a country’s competitiveness. European reports mentioned later six key enabling technologies, the number increased by adding a new one: advanced manufacturing systems. In a short time, the advances of technology generate faster growing and open new industrial directions that are difficult to predict. This paper focuses on a summary case study about the advanced manufacturing systems enabled by key enabling technologies trying to point out their importance for the value chain. Some experiences showed by European reports could inspire beginner countries like Romania. Even if the Romanian reality reflected by some statistical data is not optimistic, there is a very ambitious plan for next years to implement politics for setting key enabling technologies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: KET’s, Advanced Manufacturing Systems, Technology, Industry
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Sebastian UNGUREANU
 

Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc.), the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Cost information system, Production cost
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alin ZAMFIROIU
 

Assessment of students is achieved in a classical way thought paper with open questions or questions that the student choose the correct answer from a list provided in the question or the submission of projects completed during the school year. The results of the evaluation are provided in another meeting of teacher with the students, after teacher corrects their evaluation. Another way of evaluation is the assessment of students through mobile devices: M-Evaluation. This paper presents an analysis of the results obtained by 79 students through various modes of evaluation: M-Evaluation, projects and final exam. And presented the degree to which a student gets a note through the three modes of evaluation. The scope of the paper is to present the importance of using the M-Evalution in educational environment.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: M-Learning, M-Evaluation, Mobile devices, Mobile application, Evaluation results
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Adela Suzana ARTENE
 

The term of informational society arose from the necessity to accurately denote the society's transformation, generated by the rapid development of information and communications technology. Through the extremely rapid growth of the quality of e-businesses and communication services, the society went through a drastic change process due to the access liberalization to information and communications, thus becoming an information society, practically an e-society. For governments and public administrations informational society means more efficient, transparent and rapid public services, less expensive and closer to the needs of final consumers, whether we are talking about citizens or enterprises, thus facilitating their e-interaction with public authorities. Sustainable development must take into account the perspective of the society's structure and to re-launch and reorganize on this basis the management of resources.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: E-business, E-interaction, Informational society, Sustainable development
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Mihai-Constantin AVORNICULUI
 

There are several similarities between designing classic systems and systems for event extraction. Similarities derive from the use of common methodology in designing and developing these systems. The system is intended to be a helpful instrument when looking for pieces of informationon different web pages or when in case of a special type of event,information needs to be centralized. Use-case diagrams need to be designed through both methods. The relationships between classes have to be identified and described. Differences induced by the design process are due to the special character of a web based data exchange.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Event Extraction Systems, Developing Methods, System Implementation, UML
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ileana (BĂDULESCU) ANASTASE, Carmen Maria ANDRUȘCA
 

The article deals with issues related to the crisis, recession, economical of Romania. By this paper I did not present an anti-crisis plan but I have exposed a number of measures that may cause the settlement of this phenomenon as stimulating the economic growth, protecting citizens and creating jobs. In this context, the article provides and highlights the main markets affected by the economic crisis, these debuting with the estate market, auto market, list that continues until field of education. I have also highlighted the main causes of it, and not least I presented the impact of the crisis upon the most counties in Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Crisis, Economics, Market, Equilibrium, Inflation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Afrodita BORMA
 

This paper analyzes the new conceptual framework of the Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020. Thus, the paper presents a change of perspective in the Cohesion Policy regarding territorial development and a new vision on integrated development. This new vision presents explanations about the new family of concepts (Structural and Investment Funds, Europe 2020 Strategy, Common Strategic Framework, Partnership Agreement, etc.) used in 2014-2020. The changes made by the European Commission at Cohesion Policy level for 2014-2020 programming period, open new opportunities for the development of integrated operations leading to strengthening economic, social and territorial cohesion of the entire union. The herein used research method consists in bibliographic research performed based on information found in the literature and on the official websites of the European Union.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Cohesion Policy, Europe 2020 Strategy, Common Strategic Framework, Structural and Investment Funds, Integrated development
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Mihail BUŞU
 

The case study presented in this paper analyses the mobile market in Romania compared to that corresponding to the other European Union Member States. Mobile phone has appeared in various periods in the European Union countries and had a different development dynamics. Although there are a number of community regulations in the field of the EU telecommunications to which all the Member States are supposed to comply, there are many differences in the development of this sector at EU level. For this reason, the present study is conducted in several European Union Member States.Although the Connected Continent Package adopted by the European Commission does not involve the regulation issues, it provides a series of incentives for increasing investments as well as consumer protection. The present paper brings into focus the last legislative developments, coupled with the current economic context specific to Romanian mobile market.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Connected Continent, Concentration Degree, Competition Law, Mobile Penetration Rate, Mobile Phone, Mobile Numbers Portability
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ildikó Réka CARDOȘ
 

Budgeting is universally used all over the world. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control, they are the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance. However, in recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has been notably increased. Researchers consider that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world. As an answer, alternative budgeting concepts were developed, such as beyond budgeting, forecasting or activity-based budgeting. Our paper is a literature analysis. First, the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. Second, we continue the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting their pros and cons. Third, conducted surveys and studies are analyzed in order to establish whether traditional or alternative budgeting methods are better and have a positive impact on businesses; or which has more practical usefulness. The final part provides conclusions and discussions for future research.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Traditional budgeting, Beyond budgeting, Forecasting, Activity-based budgeting, Performance management
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandru CONSTANGIOARA, Florian Gyula LASZLO
 

In order to achieve the desired performances and the increased value added to the final consumer, organizations need not only to integrate their core businesses and align them to business strategy but also to develop essential entrepreneurial competences. After presenting the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and their specificity in a supply chain, we propose an empirical research using a working dataset of 64 firms from various industries to analyze the Romanian entrepreneurial supply chains. Structural equations are employed to estimate the complex relationships between organizational performances and entrepreneurial orientation in supply chains at national level. Results show that entrepreneurial orientation influences organizational competences only in the framework of the supply chain management strategic approach to operational excellence.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurial supply chains, Entrepreneurial orientation, Organizational competences
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Boby COSTI, Marius BOIŢĂ, Cosmina REMEŞ
 

This article aims to highlight the role of financial-accounting information for the use in the financial management of the company, starting from the most recent writings in the field. Although it is hard to imagine that the financial management uses individualized financial- accounting information, attributed solely to a particular activity within the enterprise, still we tried to address the information according to the main activities that produce and use information, respectively: of investment, of exploitation and of financing. A proper management, at the company’s level, contributes to better products at lower prices, a higher salary and at the same time, to achieve higher incomes for those who contributed with capital in that company. Therefore, the financial management is a subsystem of the overall management of the company, aimed at ensuring the necessary financial resources, their profitable allocation and use, increasing the company’s value and of the safety of patrimony.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Management, Financing, Company, Financial-accounting information
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandrina D. CRUCEANU, Ionel MUNTELE, Dănuț-Gabriel COZMA
 

It is an unanimously accepted fact that the communities’ health state in general and of the individual’s in particular is determined and influenced by a cumulus of physico-geographical factors (natural and human), factors more difficult to quantify as a society’s structure and functionality is more complex. The starting hypothesis of our study focused on identifying the existence/absence of a causality connection between the lifestyle of the communities in the upper basin of the Moldavian Bistrita (Vatra Dornei town and other ten rural areas) and their health state. If we can’t control the release of a storm, drought, landslide, volcano eruption, tsunami, etc., we can’t say the same thing about our decisions regarding nutrition, weight control and maintenance, physical and psychical hygiene, the quality of interpersonal relationships, continuous self-development, the attitude towards stressful events, etc., aspects upon which we can fortunately interfere. Our case study confirms once again that the healthy persons’ lifestyle is significantly different from that of a person suffering from different medical affections.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Lifestyle, Residential area, Declared health status, Perceived health status
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Anca CRUCERU
 

The trends of the XXI-st century (the knowledge based economy, society, organization and management) promote, on a large scale, the capitalization of the intellectual capital. Therefore, the field specialists have tried to define the concept of intellectual capital, to determine its characteristics and also its components. Also, in order for this capitalization to be used in adopting and implementing some management decisions, specialists determined the models for measuring, assessing and reporting the intellectual capital. Consequently, this article presents a few theoretical concepts regarding the intellectual capital, but also a case study regarding the methodology for applying, drawing and using the model of Patricia Pablos within S.C. ”BAF Consultancy” S.R.L.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Intellectual capital, Human capital, Structural capital, Relational capital, Measuring and assessing the intellectual capital, Reporting the intellectual capital
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Elena Chirilă DONCIU
 

Investments play a central role in the economy of a country, both in the production of goods and services and in the sphere of consumption, being a factor which influences not only the demand, but also the supply. The purpose of this research is to identify the effects of FDI on the economy of a country and analyze their evolution in Romania. The research results show that FDI inflows have fluctuated in the period 1990 - 2012, being influenced by certain internal and external factors. The FDI stock generally had an increasing tendency, except for the years 2010 and 2011.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Economic growth
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Valentin Florentin DUMITRU
 

Many companies’ motivation to implement an enterprise system (ES) is the improvement of the core process. For the distribution companies, the adoption of information technologies can open new selling channels. In this article we aim to synthesize the possible benefits of the ESs. In order to do this, we will analyse the benefits reported by a set of distribution companies after adopting ESs. We will address the benefits from the point of view of the ES’s vendors. We will use as a research methodology the case study. One of the contributions of our paper will be the development of a theoretical framework for the analysis of the benefits.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Enterprise systems, Benefits, Distribution companies, Case study
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Melinda Timea FÜLÖP, Mirela-Oana PINTEA
 

Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility, firm performance and their part in fraud and error detection. The audit firms play an important role in the capital markets by verifying that auditors provide reliable information to the decision makers. The characteristic elements of the new economy require economic entities new performance standards that go beyond economics. These works’ aim is to explore the implication of the new regulation and corporate governance on the audit profession and audit quality. This study contributes to the literature as it provides a better understanding on how the auditor and audit firms react toward the additional requirements.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Regulation, Corporate governance, Audit
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ, Alexandrina PĂDUREȚU
 

In Romanian iconography, the icon is described as an image of truth, expressing, strengthening and teaching the truth of orthodox faith. Adept and guardian of the byzantine style, the icon depicts the saints in their divine and human nature, but has traits that show the holiness, perfection and simplicity of their life. Given that the saints have been seen as modest, abstinent, fasting people, they have never been portrayed as overweight, but thin, with hollow cheeks and a frail physical appearance. In fact, the iconographic representations are characterized by a high ability to summarize the reality, the physical appearance of the saints being non-anatomical, disproportionate. Lately, it has been noticed in certain iconographic representations a change in painting style: to reproduce reality as faithfully as possible. The orientation toward the icon's external beauty involved the redefinition of the iconic portrait of the saints, who are depicted as human as possible.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Iconography, Orthodox faith, Saints, Romania
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ovidiu-Aurel GHIUȚĂ
 

In this article we speak about the application of marketing in the field of politics. We want to analyse the transposition of customer's behaviour in politics and the transposition of the influence of the brand on customer's behaviour as well as the influence of the brand on elector's behaviour. As method, we have chosen the abductive approach: the deduction approach at the beginning in order to see the parallel between the customer and the elector and then the induction approach (examples from politics). In this study we used direct documentation on the reality, the observation and the bibliography. We want to show, through in examples, the implication of the perceptions, attitudes, emotions and electors' satisfaction within choosing a candidate.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Electoral brand/brand électoral, Brand in politics/le brand dans la politique, Elector's behaviour/comportement de l’électeur, Political consumer/consommateur politique, Elector/électeur, Social choice/choix social.
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Roxana HERGHILIGIU, Vasile COCRIȘ
 

In the past 20 years operational and reputational risk has become more intriguing due to the public scandals of rogue tranding in banks like Barings Bank, Allied Irish Banks, Enron. The purpose of this study is to find the connections between operational risk and reputational risk. Our research shows that there may be a loss of reputation due to operational loss events. Moreover, every type of operational risk, from internal fraud, external fraud, legal and liability losses, processing errors, information security breaches, inappropriate business practice, physical security breaches conduct to a loss of reputation. The limitations of this paper are represented by the fact that do not have enough data to show the real impact of the reputation risk to the financial results of the European Banks.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Operational risk, Reputational risk, Banks, Losses, Basel Committee
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Roxana L. IONESCU
 

Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Sales methods, Insurance, Market, Personal selling
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Gabriel JINGA, Mădălina DUMITRU
 

The objective of this paper is to present the process of change in management accounting in Romania, a former communist country from Eastern Europe. In order to explain this process, we used the institutional theory. We focused on the presentation of the scientific context and motivation of this research from a national perspective. We also described the evolution of management accounting in Romania in the context of economic and political changes. An important moment was the fall of communism in 1989. This represents a starting point for a new economic environment and for a new management accounting system. We described the creation of the new rules and routines based on the results of a questionnaire.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Management accounting, Change, Romania, Institutional theory
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Zoltan KATO
 

In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications made with rewritable passive RFID tags. This paper aims to examine how RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications and will submit a diligent search regarding the degree of knowledge of RFID technology and the acceptance of an empirical model by the employees of Romanian companies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Logistics, RFID tags, Traceability
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Ştefan MATEI
 

Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Wine industry, Wine marketing, Promotion strategy, Promotional mix, Promotional
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
PROFILING THE WINE CONSUMER MARKET: CASE STUDIES ON USA AND ROMANIA
 

A marketing-oriented winery is capable to understand the configuration of a marketing strategy and the implications and opportunities of its implementation in the activity they carry out. This know-how allows wineries to effectively compete with other wine producers in today’s quasi-saturated, complex and challenging wine market. A winery with such an orientation is also capable to attain its aspirations and objectives through a thorough understanding of customers’ needs and wants. Within this context the scope of this paper is being sketched: to look within the wide spectrum of wine consumers and shed light on the consumer market segmentation process in order to better understand the wine consumer behaviour, values, consumption patterns and profiles. The gathered intelligence will allow winemakers to produce the wines that the consumers actually want to drink.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Wine industry, Wine marketing, Consumer profiles, Market segmentation process
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Dan MITREA
 

The Machine to Machine (M2M) Market, according to Digital Research (2012) was 121 bn. $ in 2010, and was estimated by Digital Research to be 948 bn. $ for 2020. The so-called non-connectivity revenue (no human implication) will rise from 3% in 2010 to 25% in 2017, meaning no human interaction will be necessary to retrieve certain machines data. The data models processed from the information gathered here, can certainly predict clear consumer behaviors. Near Filed Communication has its own capacity to be part of the internet of things, as an interaction meter for human reactions to environment. Juniper Research (2014) on NFC, splits his marketing potential between smart posters, coupons, smart tickets for public transportation, consumer goods information, electronic wallet, but also on social media, smart homes, smart cars or even smarter cities.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: NFC Marketing, Tap Marketing, Internet of Things, Complex event processing, SAP CS
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Adina Roxana MUNTEANU
 

In a global market for organic food which in 2011 was estimated to 63 billion US Dollars (Sahota, 2013), smallholding are important as they could fuel further growth. One of the main constraints for organic certification of smallholdings is the cost of certification, which is quite high compared to the turnover. Group certification for organic agriculture is a type of certification which does not require yearly inspection of all farmers and it comes with a smaller price tag for each individual farmer. In several countries such as Canada, India and East African countries the group certification is possible while at the moment in the EU it is not. This article investigates the potential impact of group certification for Romania in the context of the EU still undergoing debate regarding the review of the EU policy on organic agriculture.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Organic agriculture, Group certification, Romania
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Olimpia OANCEA
 

Today, organizations must adapt to the new realities of the environment in which they operate, and their efforts must be increasingly more oriented towards identifying the factors that influence consumer behavior, in particular economic, social and psychological aspects. When consumers are acting on incomplete information base, they assume automatically a risk for each purchasing decision. The size of the risk decreases depending on the quantity and relevance of information transmitted through communicational messages. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to highlight the factors that should be taken into account when designing a communicational message, so that this has to have the ability to change consumer attitudes and to keep constant interest to the products and / or services of a company.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Consumer behavior, Communicational message, Purchase decision
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Sorin PAUN, Iulian UDROIU, Valentina Ofelia ROBESCU
 

The Romanian Government has faced extensive changes in the last period regarding its operating plan, in what was meant to accomplish and the actions of the political representatives and citizens, their tasks and responsibilities. In this paper we have attempted to identify the main factors with direct influence on management of public institutions starting from the communication management. The result of the research showed that leaving aside and not taking into account the strategic perspectives, preparation in terms of poor management of administrative factors are elements that detract from public institutions and from here the lack of initiative and flexibility needed for their operation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Public institutions, Communication, Performance
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Valentina Ofelia ROBESCU, Sorin PAUN, Iulian UDROIU
 

The intensity of the process of globalization and the new technological advances have resulted in changes in vision and behavior, so that the competitiveness and survival of European companies is linked increasingly more to IT processes efficiency and knowledge. In general, we consider innovation as a boosting factor of progress even in the period of economic and political crisis in which we find ourselves. The need for this research is the interest of companies from Romania towards innovation. In many industrial enterprises, or in the intermediate category of advice, and even among those in public services it has become necessary because of the innovation manager.. In this paper we dealt with the theoretical notion of innovation and impact on the development of enterprises.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Innovation, Competitiveness, Enterprise development
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Andrei ROTH, Cătălin PETCU
 

The world energy needs are on the rise, and they come from developing economies, especially the emerging ones such as China or India with high demographic and economic growth rates. These countries future demand for energy will shape the world’s energetic system. They will require considerable quantities of energy to fuel their demanding economies. The last decade has shown that the world’s energetic needs are being reoriented from West to East. Coal represents an available, secure and competitive energetic resource which can help the growing need for energy. However it is not that flexible as gas or renewables and it has also a greater impact upon environment due to its greenhouse gas emissions in the context of climate change. For these reasons coal is being less used for the energetic needs of the developed economies. Will the current attributes of coal be sufficient to maintain coal’s place in the world energetic mix?

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Coal, Energy security, Competitiveness, CO2 emissions
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Alexandra-Elena RUSĂNEANU
 

There is no question that performance is the desired result of every activity or action. In order to correctly measure an organization’s performance it is necessary to select key performance indicators (KPIs) that will deliver long-term value to the company. KPIs are presenting performance information for all levels of the organization and they are reflecting the progress made so far to achieve strategic objectives. The selection of the key performance indicators must be made according to the organization’s industry and activity. The company must truly understand its business and its mission. Also, KPIs must be closely linked to the strategic objectives. The focus of this research is to present effective rules for defining key performance indicators for the Service industry. This sector of economy consists in generating intangible goods like experience, expertise and information. Therefore, monitoring this type of services requires a different approach when defining performance indicators compared to the manufacturing industry.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: KPI, Performance Indicators, Service Industry
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Margareta RUSU
 

Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Biomass, Climate change mitigation, Wood processing industry, Research, development and innovation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Andreea Fortuna ȘCHIOPU
 

The use of emotions in the workplace has begun to be increasingly studied by theorists and researchers in organizational behavior. One essential construct in the literature is the emotional labor which is perceived to be the management of feelings to express organizationally desired emotions. This article aims to review existing perspectives on emotional labor, to differentiate the concepts of emotional labor and emotional dissonance, to analyze emotion regulation strategies, and to discuss the consequences of emotional labor in the workplace. These clarifications with regard to the emotional labor and its mechanisms can help manage their associated negative outcomes (such as emotional exhaustion, lower job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and intentions to quit the job) and sustain their possible positive outcomes (such as feelings of accomplishment and enhanced identification with the work role).

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Emotions in the workplace, Emotional labor, Emotions regulation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 4
Janeta Simona WEISZ, Alexandru JIVAN
 

This paper aims to outline synthetically a set of indicators for the study of productivity in education and to critically analyze their suitability as input, output or outcome. References were made to the indicators available in the databases of Romania, World Bank, Eurostat, OECD relevant for measuring productivity in education, which opposed to usual reporting between effect / result and inputs elements consumed in the production process,in the case of educational services should be considered the quantitative, but also qualitative aspects - and especially - mediated effects, on long-term and very long term. The research results presented, emphasize the importance of the educational reform efforts to focus more on qualitative aspects in measuring productivity, more precisely on the abilities, competencies that have pupils /students and adults, on motivating teachers, to achieve educational outcomes which could increase students performance, productivity growth on long-term and very long term effects, with an impact at the macroeconomic level.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 1th July, 2014
  • Keywords: Education, Indicators, Productivity, Effects
  • Received: 2nd May, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th June, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Filiz AGAOGLU
 

This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1) the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2) the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3), the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Business Ethical values, Islam, Christianity, Turkey, Romania
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Kamer Ainur AIVAZ, Marioara MIREA
 

According to a new report of the European Commission, the European area in which one lives can have a considerable influence on the education and on the life perspectives. The report - the first one of this kind – urges the member states of the European Union to undertake more efforts in order to reduce these inequalities. Starting with the results that are included in this report, the current paper aims to move the analysis to the Romanian space, studying the discrepancies between macro regions (NW, Center, NE, SE, South-Muntenia, Bucharest – Ilfov, SW, West) to the principal educational indicators. The research is going to use the FAC method (The Factorial Analysis of the Correspondents) which is a descriptive method of multidimensional analysis of the data based on the calculus of the χ2 distances between the points. Through this method we are going to test not only the independence of the variables, but their association as well.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Disparities, The factorial analysis of the Correspondents (FAC), The contribution of the axis to the inertia of a point, The contribution of the point to the inertia of an axis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Cătălin George ALEXE, Cătălina Monica ALEXE, Gheorghe MILITARU
 

Innovation analysis based on scores (Innovation Scorecard) is a simple way to get a quick diagnosis on the potential of innovation of a firm in its intention to achieve the innovation capability. It aims to identify and remedy the deficient aspects related to innovation management being used as a measuring tool for the innovation initiatives over time within the innovation audit. The paper aims to present the advantages and disadvantages of using the method, and the three approaches developed over time. Therefore, the model proposed by the consulting firm Arthur D. Little in collaboration with the European Business School, Eckelmann's model and AGGB's local model are summarized and compared. At the end of the paper, several possible solutions are proposed to improve the way of analysis based on scores.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: The innovation capability at the firm level, The innovation analysis based on scores, The process of innovation
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Abdulrahman ALRASSI
 

The paper is intending to reveal once again that the importance of religion to the Muslim world and the importance of freedom of speech in the Western world increased. The paper mentions the contributions of states and worldwide organizations in order to decrease and even to eliminate, if it will be possible, the phenomenon of extremism for both parties. The extremism leads all states and organizations to strengthen the efforts done in the sense of decreasing the dimensions of this phenomenon and to prevent happening of events similar with those from 9/11. Extremists exist unfortunately worldwide, whether referring to the religion or secular ideologies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Religious Extremism, Terrorism, Islamophobia, West, Islam
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Violeta-Andreea ANDREIANA (MIHAESCU), Camelia-Getuta STOICA (STANCIU), Cornelia Denisa IVAN (TRANDAFIROIU)
 

Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Marketing, Marketing environment, Toy market, Influence factors, Analysis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Marius BOIŢĂ, Boby COSTI, Andrei ANGHELINA
 

The paper addresses the main aspects and tendencies of the tourism in the context of sustainable development, of the place and importance of rural tourism, the usefulness of using an index system in touristy and rural tourism activity, of measuring the rural tourism activity on a country level and the need to develop it, considering its possible integration into the European touristic market. Furthermore, a new index system, to be applied in the rural tourism is set up, as well as an original structure concerning data processing and analyzing for the data acquired by sampling. These elements are only useful if applied by I.C.T (Touristy Research Institute), by other government- and non-government institutions, or even by companies interested in developing business in rural tourism, or make research work on certain aspects of the rural tourism activity, on the tourists’ behaviour in the context of this type of tourism.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Tourism, Rural tourism, Sustainable development, Touristic supply, Economic index
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Marius BOIŢĂ, Andrei ANGHELINA, Boby COSTI
 

This paper, proposes to emphasize the marketing strategy of the tourism companies, in order to promote the development of Romanian services and tourist destinations during an economic crisis. The last decades are characterized by the increase in tourist traffic, based on the diversification and increase in demand and supply of tourism products and services in many regions of the world. New touristic destinations appear continuously, offering novel products, while the touristic entrepreneurs must face a sharp competition on the nowadays tourism market. Their success can be ensured by adopting target-oriented and efficient strategies in their marketing mix policy. Regardless of the type of the Romanian tourism company (tour operator or retailer, tourism service provider, etc.), it must adopt an appropriate strategy to allow permanent and effective adaptation to environment changes. In order to get a sustainable position on the tourism market the tourism companies must address and plan complex marketing strategies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Tourism, Services, Touristic products, Marketing, Crises
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU
 

The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Organizational learning, Learning organisation, Teamwork, Leadership
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ioana D. BUFAN
 

The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management) system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM) system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities) and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Activity-based costing, Activity-based management, Manufacturing sector, Decision-making, Costing systems, Management accounting
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Andreea G. BURDUF
 

Starting from the question if higher education is enough to have success, I want to analyze the impact of years spent in school and university on adults. Good results in school translate into business success? A person with completed studies can be a skilled specialist who has mastered the field, but sentenced only to professional competence. More difficult is to put into practice, develop their skills alone, to adapt to the changing market demands, and that theoretical courses during the school could not provide. Teachers are not prophets, whether they are teachers of economics or they study economic cycles. Will knowledge acquired during studies help the good of the economy, its sustainable development?

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Education, Specialist, Labour market
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Daniela CALTEA
 

The intention in writing this article is to provide a general presentation relating to Romanian HIV infected young people social-professional integration. It will speak in particularly about Iassy.The topics are: teenage, respectively youth as a stage in human being development, general aspects related to AIDS/HIV infection, statistics that include general information about Romanian (Iassy) HIV infected youth, legislation about HIV infected people rights, HIV infected young people discrimination in the social-professional integration and preventive measures against discrimination.HIV/AIDS infection should not be a barrier in socio-professional integration way, and if a person is qualified and prepared in the field he/she wants to work, than that person should have all the benefits to be accepted in that job.We consider that employers mentality is based on the lack of information, which generates prejudice, fear against infected people, they are afraid to get HIV or to lose the rest of employees. We think that this fact must be changed.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Risks, HIV-AIDS, Youth, Statistics, Legislation
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mihaela-Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ
 

Beyond the multitude of definitions, internal control is found in the centre of managerial concerns worldwide. This amplification of interest towards internal control has its origin in a series of events, of which two can be mentioned: the growing business complexity and dispersal activity centres, which led to the growth and development of the delegation of competence, the only way which enables the responsible to exercise powers from a distance and entirely, bringing together the components needed by its delegates. Regulatory domain, which has not ceased to expand: laws, regulations, rules, professional constraints, budgetary and social – all these have increasingly limited the decision makers, through a network of rules that must be respected. Consequently, what can be done to be safe from any punishment and to ensure constant watch over the essentials? To answer these questions, and many others, experts in the field have taken initiatives that have enabled them to define with precision the specific internal control and to set goals, creating the famous models: COSO and CoCo.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Control environment, Risk assessment, Control activities, Information and communication, Monitoring
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Cristina Anca COLIBABA, Stefan COLIBABA, Rodica GARDIKIOTIS
 

In a world characterized by globalization and mobility understanding cultures and communicating with people of different cultures has become significantly important. As cultural competence is part of communicative competence, integrating culture into language learning has become a must in education. Culture helps learners to be culturally competent and communicate efficiently in different societies. The European Glottodrama project run by EuroEd Foundation Iasi initiated an innovative language teaching methodology. The language course combining drama and language techniques with a very strong cultural component was applied to a group of 20 international students from the University of Medicine in Iasi studying Romanian as a foreign language. According to the Glottodrama method, the cultural element is very important as a profound understanding of a dramatic text means presenting culture in action. The article highlights the learners’ opinions and attitudes towards the role of culture in foreign language learning and some of the activities designed to develop cultural competence.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Cultural competence, Communicative competence, Drama, Language
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Elena CONDREA, Roxana SÂRBU, Raluca Daniela RIZEA
 

We can say that you cannot maintain yourself on the current market of rural tourism operators unless you provide customers with quality products and services, prepared foods safe for consumption, and, not least, if you do not prove you are concerned with ensuring a healthy and clean environment, environmental protection. In this paper we intend to present some aspects of implementing an integrated management system of quality - food security - the average level of tourist pension, and highlight the benefits brought by this ongoing process to the respective operators in rural tourism. To this end, we studied the standards, references available in this area, and documents produced within guesthouses with the implementation of various management systems components of an integrated quality - environment - food security management system.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Quality assurance, Food safety, Environmental protection, Tourist pension
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Elena CONDREA, Anca Cristina STANCIU, Mihaela CONSTANDACHE
 

Successfully implementing and maintaining a quality management system in tourism facilities in which you can practice balneotherapeutic tourism can contribute to tourism development especially in the coastal and mountain area (but also in other areas that enjoy the presence of balneotherapeutic tourism establishments), thus creating the conditions for a Romanian tourism focused on providing quality services at international standards for the benefit of both foreign tourists and the Romanians. One of the advantages of balneotherapeutic tourism refers to the fact that this form of tourism is characterized by a level of seasonality much lower other forms of tourism, as it is based on a potentially permanent, highly complex, which is practically inexhaustible and independent of weather conditions. Through this study we tried to present the characteristics / features of Romanian balneotherapeutic tourism, the problems faced by this kind of tourism and, not least, the benefits of implementing quality systems in organizations providing such services.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Quality assurance, Tourist services, Customer satisfaction, Balneotherapeutic tourism, Spas
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Valentina-Daniela N. CONSTANTIN, Roxana-Denisa G. STOENESCU
 

This paper introduces the concept of a cult brand for a more accurate understanding of the extreme loyalty that consumers show towards specific brands. The article focuses on the brand Apple and it explores the elements for which it is considered a cult brand and the impact of its origin on sustaining its cult appeal. Based on the fact that many brands rely on emotional characteristics to obtain consumers’ interest and attention, the country responsible for their conception is usually a warranty for quality and respect, features transferred to consumers. Through an exploratory research, based on investigation of secondary information as a data collection method, the research focuses on Apple's corporate mythology, its brand name, its geographical provenance and also the community surrounding it. The results of the study revealed that brand origin had a major role in creating the image that Apple sustained in the last decades, the conclusion reinforced the idea that on a solid foundation can be built a complex structure.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Origin, Country-of-origin, Cult brand, Loyalty, Brand community
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mihaela CONSTANDACHE, Elena CONDREA, Anca-Cristina STANCIU
 

Public health is a top priority for the European Union. The main factor in ensuring population health is food consumption and in particular food quality. The present paper aims at analyzing Romanian population food consumption during the 1990-2012 periods, its evolution in time; it identifies its main features and their effects on population health. Amid the economic crisis the purchasing power of population is impaired leading to insufficient consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low intake of vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and iron (especially in children, women and elderly people), which could be an important risk factor in the development of chronic diseases.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Food consumption, Eating behavior, Population health
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
George-Silviu CORDOȘ, Melinda Timea FÜLÖP
 

Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility and their part in fraud and error detection. As a result of legal conditions and regulations, audit firms in some jurisdictions have recently started to compile transparency reports, which contain information regarding corporate governance compliance of audit firms. This study aims to investigate if corporate governance has a significant effect on audit reporting and audit quality. Thus, our starting point is the definition of corporate governance, with an emphasis on the transparency principle for efficient corporate governance. We aim to analyse how this principle influences the quality level of the audit report, through a qualitative study. Keeping in mind that corporate governance in audit firms is considered to have a noteworthy effect on audit quality, we expect to find that regulatory bodies expect more transparency from these firms, therefore increasing competitiveness among audit firms concerning audit quality.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Audit Reporting, Transparency, Corporate Governance, Audit quality
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
THE FINANCING OF THE CHURCH, A WIDELY DEBATED ISSUE
 

The issue regarding the financing of the Church is perceived differently in society. Today the self-financing is considered as the basic rule governing the life of the denominational units and subunits in Romania. A few voices were raised against the financial support shown by the state towards religious denominations. This study attempts to present, without claiming completeness, both the position of those favoring the withdrawal of financial support that the state gives to the church, and the position of the public – the majority, i.e. those citizens emotionally tied to the compelling values promoted by the Romanian Orthodox Church.We also considered it appropriate to make reference to the position of the Romanian Patriarchate on this delicate subject, and, at the same time, the last third of the paper was devoted to European models that govern the relationship between the State and religious denominations.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Church, Budget, Financing, NGOs, Patriarchate, European models
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Daniel DANECI-PATRAU, Georgiana SUSMANSCHI (BADEA), Luciana SPINEANU-GEORGESCU
 

To reflect the place and role of internal audit in the economic entity and its function as assistant manager in this paper we followed the presentation of the preliminary assumptions of a model for measuring the quality of internal audit. Also, we presented a possible model of research regarding managerial effectiveness. Questions that sought answer in this research are: How can we streamline internal audit? What is meant by effective internal audit? What is the relationship between internal audit efficiency and performance management? Recording a high level of performance of internal audit provide a high level of performance of the whole economic entity. Of course, responsible for the implementation of recommendations made by the Internal Auditor is the manager, but in our opinion, as long as the internal audit department conducts activities / tasks with maximum seriousness, conscientiousness and professionalism, the manager will be to some extent forced to implement the recommendations, having a high confidence in those.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Internal audit, Performance management,Internal audit efficiency
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ramona DOBRE, Mihaela Valentina DRACEA, Alexandru Costin CIRSTEA
 

The present paper aims to analyze the current state regarding the property and exploitation of the agricultural land and to formulate solutions concerning the rural economy development with a starting point anchored in the consolidation of the agricultural holdings and the excessive land fragmentation management. A developed rural economy which reduces the poverty of the population living in this environment is based on the proper exploitation of the agricultural land. The faulty law system regarding the agricultural land property has led to its excessive fragmentation, a fact that possesses a problem in achieving efficientland exploitation.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Land fragmentation, Rural economy, Land property, Agricultural holding
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Elena Chirilă DONCIU
 

The economic crisis has had a severe impact on the economy worldwide. The investment activity has strongly felt the crisis and caused dramatic changes in the hierarchy of large investors. The financial system did not have availability for credits and funding from companies' own resources was extremely limited in terms of reducing profits. The purpose of the paper is the analysis of global foreign direct investment under the effect of the largest financial and economic crisis. The research results show a dramatic decline in foreign direct investments flows perceived and generated in 2009, and the fact that since 2010 there has been an easy comeback.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Economic crisis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Teodora V. FĂRCAȘ, Adriana TIRON-TUDOR
 

When talking about the European economic context an attempt to equilibrate the gap between countries can be noticed. Through different projects, financed by the European Commission, the disparities between Western and Eastern Europe, in the entrepreneurial environment, are trying to be reduced. The aim of this article is to serve as model case that illustrates the intercultural partnership between Finland, Hungary and Romania in order to develop workplace innovation in Eastern Europe. The focus of this paper is to present a detailed descriptive analysis of the various practical issues that are related to effective implementation of workplace innovations in Romania and the adaptability of the Finnish model to the Romanian context. Special emphasize will be put on the pedagogical methods used by the innovation deliverer, the Finnish partner.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Partnership, Innovation, Human resources, Sustainable development
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ortansa FLOREA (MOISE)
 

Romania, like many other states, is affected by two major imbalances: inflation and unemployment. The article proposes an analysis of the inflation – unemployment relationship over time and particularly the coverage of this relationship in Romania, considering the age group 20-24 years. In order to identify this relationship, it will be used data from the National Bank of Romania and National Institute of Statistics. Based on the data collected, we will try to trace the Phillips curve. Also, the curve obtained will be analyzed and will try to identify the stage / stages in which it falls, steps taken by the Phillips curve in the postwar period and described by Milton Friedman.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Phillips curve, Inflation rate, Unemployment rate, Natural unemployment rate
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU
 

Previously scrutinized for adopting harmful fiscal measures, tax havens have progressively adhered to the internationally agreed principles of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes promoted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In this respect, important amendments have been made to both their tax and commercial legislation. Their main competitive advantage remains the favorable fiscal systems characterized by 0% tax rates which have favored the development of well established financial services sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyze the fiscal framework offered by six former tax haven jurisdictions: Monaco, Jersey, Guernsey, Cayman Islands, Isle of Man and British Virgin Islands, which occupy high ranks in the Global Financial Centers Index. The results come to emphasize the importance of these jurisdictions’ tax systems in the development of strong financial sectors.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Tax haven, Tax policy, Financial sector, Global Financial Center, Internationally agreed tax standard
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Marius GUST, Laura PĂNOIU, Sorin GRIGORESCU
 

The paper aims at investigating the economic and financial crisis impact which has occurred in the Romanian economy, upon the Romanian companies since 2008. Specifically, its effects are taken into account regarding the number of economic players, the labor force, and the results of business performance: enterprise turnover or gross outcomes. Additionally, this research paper aims at assessing the crisis consequences on corporate behavior in the insecure environment of the crisis regarding the investment process and the value rendered by enterprises. The investigation is made exclusively on the secondary and tertiary sectors of the Romanian economy: industry, construction, trade and services, both from an overall and a sectoral perspective. The analysis also envisages the correlation of progress per the aforementioned economic segments with the overall development of the Romanian economy in terms of economic and financial crisis.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Crisis impact, Romanian companies, Results of business performance
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Maria HERMEL – STĂNESCU, Mihai SVASTA
 

In the fast growing business services market today, one manager may wonder whether to use coaching services or consultancy services. Questions might arise: which are the differences between the two types of services, their common points and the relationship between the two? This paper aims to explore the above mentioned questions while pleading for both services. The fact is that they are powerful processes that can bring added value to the organization through use of knowledge. The bottom line is that they work best in different situations, and they should not be regarded as a “one or the other” but as synergy knowledge related tools.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Management, Coaching, Consulting, Mentoring, Training, Personal Services, Professional Services
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Elena-Sabina HODOR
 

Total Rewards Management is a subject of major importance for companies, because, by using models for this, firms can achieve their objectives of high performance. In order to analyse a validated total rewards model in Romanian Accounting and Consulting Companies, it is used The WorldatWork Total Rewards Model, which depict what contributes to applicant attraction and employee motivation and retention. Thus, the methodology of the previous survey is adjusted to the local context. The conclusions for the methodological aspects illustrate that the present research involves three strategic steps in order to achieve the objectives presented: the analysis of organizational environment of the companies from the sample, checking if Total Rewards Model proposed in the previous research is applicable for the same romanian companies from the previous survey, the analysing of the differences between results, and, if necessary, the adaptation of the model for Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: WorldatWork Total Rewards Model, Matching in Accounting & Consulting Companies, Panel data collection, Romania
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Corina Anamaria IOAN, Florin-Alexandru LUCA, Constantin SASU
 

Offering from the point of view of its characteristics and also interesting to analyze is what the specialists call ‘brand’. This term is relatively new in the area of marketing, and it stirs interest especially as far as its two components are concerned: the situation of the contemporary society, on the one hand, and the marketing, i.e. the efforts the corporation undertakes in order to be chosen by the clients, on the other. The peculiarities and, at the same time, the variables of each brand reside in the economic, social, educational, financial, political, religious or any other type of specificities, that are different first and foremost from one product to another, but also from country to country, and we could even add, from region to region.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Personal marketing, Brand Personal, Brand, Globalization
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Corina Anamaria IOAN, Florin-Alexandru LUCA, Constantin SASU
 

The advocacy activity is of significant importance for the business community, the perception of its need to influence the legislative process in order to have a transparent legislative procedure, the necessity of understanding the way in which the decisions are taken and the desire of the business community to assist the changing of laws and norms being linking elements of the advocacy activity to the business environment. The branding impact is practically immeasurable in social and cultural terms as it over exceeded the commercial origins. It has spread in education, sports, fashion, tourism, arts, theater, literature, regional and national politics and in almost all other fields that we could think of. The non-profit and charitable organizations that compete with the commercial brands in the emotional territory of the minds and hearts of people, for the money in their pockets, use branding more and more.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Brand personal, Advocacy, Business, Civil society, Personal marketing
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Maria-Cristina IORGULESCU, Anamaria Sidonia RĂVAR
 

The globalization and expansion of multinationals has led to various studies on expatriation management, but literature regarding this issue in the hotel industry is still scarce, especially in Romania. Expatriates are critical to the success of this particular industry, as more and more hotel chains operate beyond their domestic domains and intend to enter inclusively in the Romanian market. The study presented in this article uses a qualitative research method intended to discover the perspective of practitioners on the most important management skills hotel expatriate managers should possess, the most effective cross-cultural training activities provided by parent hotel companies and other challenges faced in international assignments. The data collection method was an in-depth interview with expat hotel managers in Bucharest. The study suggests opportunities for international hotel chains to better prepare their expatriates, in order to integrate them more effectively in a new cultural environment.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Expat hotelmanager, Cross-cultural, Training
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Rada Cristina IRIMIE
 

After the Second World War, Central and Eastern Europe was discovering the communist influence. The communist ideology changed the political regimes of the countries from the region, but most important it changed the society and the mentality of the people living in Central and Eastern Europe. The countries experienced censorship, lack of private property, repression, secret police abuse, religious bans, poverty, food rationalization, lack of privacy, massive industrialization and many other abuses which are typical for a totalitarian regime. This article focuses on daily life aspects during communist Romania, because it is one of the most revealing cases of the post-communist countries. Romania had one of the most abusive and obsolete communist regime. The methodological approach is based on the case study method, which will be validated with empirical data. This article will also emphasize the legacies of the totalitarian recent past over the contemporary evolution of the Central and Eastern European societies, with an accent on the Romanian case.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Communism, Eastern Europe, Repression, Daily life, Legacies, Romania
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Paul-Panfil IVAN
 

The ample intervention of the European Social Fund in Romania trough the Human Resources Development Operational Programme has pursuit, among other objectives, to help migrant people for a successful participation in a modern and flexible labour market. Of course, the interest and support of emigrants are laudable initiatives but unfortunately the inconsistencies and problems that occurred in the implementation of grant projects have generated doubts on the efficiency of funds allocations in this area of interest. This paper aims to observe how grants have supported the Romanian emigrants and to analyse the implementation of this goal in the human resource development projects.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: European Social Fund, Migration, Emigrants, Grants
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Cornelia Denisa IVAN (TRANDAFIROIU), Camelia-Getuta STOICA (STANCIU), Violeta-Andreea ANDREIANA (MIHAESCU)
 

The major transformations in the supply of goods and services during the last decades entailed the development of some interactive relations between the various participants engaged in commercial operations. These relations, although naturally conflictive as for the classic negotiations between the participants, became, in certain fields, cooperation relations or even partnerships in the service of the clients on the relevant market. In this work, we intend to analyse the most significant participants in the market of lighting sources and devices (SCI) and to underline the importance of the cooperation between these participants in the satisfaction of the final client requirements. The specific of this market entails the preparation of some marketing strategies to prevent the conclusion of some partnership relations at the procurement-delivery chain level as well as between the participants in this chain and the so-called market „influencers” (architects, installation companies, builders). The purpose of this approach consists in the preparation of a proposal package dedicated to the companies participating in this market for the purpose of cooperating in providing intelligent lighting solutions.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Influencers, Partnership, SCM, Lighting sources and devices market, Cooperation
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Oana-Ramona LOBONŢ, Nicoleta-Claudia MOLDOVAN
 

The frequency with which individuals are assessed as having competences to influence decisions taken by the authorities is an indicator of the extent to which they consider their own society as being democratic. This paper is outlined from the 2013 Eurobarometer survey in witch Romania "emphasize" through the lowest level of organizations membership, only 3-4% of respondents declaring themselves members of NGOs, although 66% of Romanian state that they share values and interests of organizations and they have confidence that they act right in order to influence public decisions. In this paper we tried to observe which are most effective ways to influence policy making for Romanians. It can notice that there is a proportion of over 75% in terms of voting in local and national elections, respectively a proportion of over 65% in the degree of attachment of Romanians towards the NGOs. However, the contradictions are obvious because turnout fell in the last 10 years below 50% in terms of parliamentary elections.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Public decisions, Civil society, Questionnaire based analysis, Romania
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Florin LUCHIAN
 

The purpose of this study is to examine the strategic marketing tools (instruments) such as segmentation and targeting for a better understanding of current and potential audiences of classical music festivals. Arts administrators need to locate and address the audience segmentation, enhancing communication with audiences of all segments. The marketing strategies for music festivals should include improving music festival branding as well as developing diverse programs and engaging with the community on multiple levels. The study incorporates a literature review of the recent sociological research dealing with the consumption of arts products and a case study approach on the fifteenth edition of Romanian Music Festival in Iași, involving an audience survey. The research can be used as a tool to inform marketing and audience development plans for the organisers of Romanian Music Festival and other arts organisations. It also contains insights that organisations might find useful in the development of an arts activity itself.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Arts marketing, Festival management, Audience research, Romanian Music Festival
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Eliza-Olivia LUNGU, Monica Mihaela MAER-MATEI
 

The paper studies the entrepreneurial motivation of adults from five EU countries: Romania, Greece, Spain, Denmark and Belgium. The selected countries are involved as partners in a Leonardo da Vinci project, intended to adapt a board game into serious game for improving the entrepreneurial skills. Based on the data provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor we determine a series of factors, for each country that influences the decision of a young people/adult to start a new venture. The data are collected through an annual survey, conducted on a representative sample of the adult population between 18-64 years for every country (at least 2,000 per country). We develop our analysis on the 2010 database.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Labour market, Logit
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ana-Maria MANDIUC
 

A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Prostitution, Sex worker, Child, Rights
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Irina MANOLESCU, Angelica NECULĂESEI
 

Today, collaboration, information and resource sharing with different (and sometimes even competing) organizations have been viewed as key for success building. Encouraged by the European and national institutions, formal partnerships, whether temporary or permanent, such as grant writing agreements, clusters, regional working groups or networks have become more widespread in the socio-economic environment. This paper aims to investigate the most important intercultural issues in various types of formal partnerships built in Romanian public and private organizations and to identify solutions to these problems. In order to provide a solid, research-based approach to our study, we studied the evaluation reports of programs and projects involving partnerships and conducted interviews with people involved in the development and implementation of joint activities. The application of results is straightforward: the organizations will raise their awareness of the importance of an intercultural analysis when participating in a formal partnership and will take into account the implementation of appropriate methods in order to overcome intercultural challenges.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Organizational culture, Cultural barriers, Intercultural problems, Projects
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Alina P. MARINESCU-NENCIU
 

On the one hand, the present paper tries to figure out the premises for the nowadays twisted relationship existing between mass media and audience in times when the televisual message gets continuously adapted in order to fit the needs of a chameleonic globalized audience that contradicts the growing ratings by declaring its discontent regarding the received mediated information. Therefore, the article tries to explain why people keep watching TV and prioritize exactly the media providers that offer them the least of what they supposedly look for. On the other hand, the study intends to shed a new light over the twists that take place in the mass media realm itself. If until recently the media have been known as the best providers of instrumental information that helped the public control the surrounding environment, the lately growing interest in general information may conduct to a change of paradigm in the self-attributed functions of both new and old mass communication media.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Mass media, Audience, Instrumental information, Social pressure, Global
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Radu MĂRGINEAN, Anamaria ȚEPEȘ BOBESCU
 

The Romanian economic spectrum considered on a slightly increasing trend in the general aspects of the national economy, feels increasingly the need for a development in the cost management issue. One of the modern methods of cost calculation that can fill this gap in the Romanian business practice in management accounting is the target costing method. The overall objective of this case study is to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of this method in the cost controlling activity, widely used in the field of managerial accounting practice in the developed economies. The financial accounting and the managerial accounting converge in terms of ultimate interest for the company, i.e. value creation and performance increase in a sustainable way. After performing the case study with real financial data, we conclude that the target costing method is applicable and particularly useful in the construction industry and the results may provide support for decision-makers.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: The target costing method, Managerial acounting, performance, The construction industry
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Marilena MARIN, Alina POPESCU
 

In the present paper we focus on analyzing the notions of movable and immovable publicity from two points of view: that implied by the Romanian language and the one implied by the English language. The problem of translating these two notions required studying each of them by distinctly acknowledging their specificity.In Romanian, when discussing about publicity, we automatically correlate it with the common usage, from the field of marketing and, more largely, of business. At first sight, this approach has as a linguistic equivalent the term „advertising”.If we want to use the term „publicity” in the field of law, we find this notion included in the domain of the Civil Law- the right to ownership and other main real rights. Given this situation, the Romanian term „publicitate” is synonymous with the notion of „movable and immovable publicity”. Therefore, the translation of this term will be made into English— according to the notion it refers to— as „publicity” or „advertising”. We came across these issues when we analyzed the outcome of some research undergone in the field of real rights and the publicity of some rights. On this occasion, we became conscious of how important a correct translation was in order not to distort the course of our research.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinion and Commentary
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Publicity, Real Rights, Cadastre, Property, Immovable
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Nicoleta-Claudia MOLDOVAN, Oana-Ramona LOBONŢ, Milena-Jana SCHANK
 

This paper seeks to address awareness, importance and applicability of the concept of "citizenship" based on the assumption that schools can play an important role in the development of youth civic education. Such education and the role that the school plays in the development of participatory citizenship has become of considerable importance in recent decades due to the fact that, in most developed countries, schools are required to provide civic education and active youth. Studies addressing youth civic education led to the conclusion that there is a noticeable lack of involvement and education of young people in terms of their ability to meet the challenges of civic behavior. It must be necessary to consider mandatory continuing training civic and social skills to another level of understanding as education level ISCED 5 and ISCED 6, where the generalization and abstraction concepts already previously acquired, can develop flexible civic and social skills pointed directly through a constructive participation in community life and decision-making process at all levels, by the turnout.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Citizenship Behavior, Education, Youth
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Adina Roxana MUNTEANU
 

The organic market has been increasing in the past couple of years and it is still expected to do so. However, even though the prices are higher on the organic market, farmers do not always manage to benefit from these better prices. Romania is a country with a high potential for organic agriculture as there are 14.8 million hectares of agricultural land out of which arable land represents 8.9 million ha. According to NIS (2012a p. 89), in 2011, 29.2% of the country’s population was employed in agriculture. However, most households in rural areas produce for mere survival due mainly to the highly fragmented land owning. Therefore there is an acute need for new development strategies in order to improve living standards in rural areas. This article describes business models of organic cooperatives in Nepal and Romania. Moreover it proposes a rural development initiative based on the creation of organic cooperatives and suggests thata NGOs could implement such a program.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Cooperative, Organic agriculture, Rural development, Romania, Nepal
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Emanoil MUSCALU, Alexandra STANIT
 

The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Human Capital, Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Assets
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Consuela NECȘULESCU, Luminița ȘERBĂNESCU
 

In the last few years, and especially after the beginning of the economic and financial crisis in Romania, significant changes occurred in the macroeconomic indicators conditioning the final consumption of the population. Consequently, in this article, we aimed at analysing the evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators (the Gross Domestic Product, - GDP, the inflation rate, the unemployment rate) influencing the final consumption of the population, as well as the correlation among these variables. For the analysis of these correlations I proposed using the linear regression model. The analysis of the trend and of the causal links among the studied variables uses annual series from the 2000 – 2012 period. For the statistical processing and the econometric modelling we used software Excel and Eviews software packages.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: GDP, Inflation rate, Unemployment rate, Final consumption of the population, Statistical tests
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mariana NEDELCU (BUNEA)
 

In the context of economic and financial crisis triggered in EU by autumn 2008, Romania's banking system like that in the other European countries, faced with the consequences of decreasing the standard of living the worsening of purchasing power (in terms of retail) and with gaps and Delay occurred in the payment of corporate clients. However the deteriorating the quality of bank investments, increasing non-performing loans in bank portfolios totate ultimately causing the accumulation of excessive risks that banks were exposed. On the background of the crisis, the impact of Basel III is not only a financial regulation that is applicable to the banking industry and will fundamentally determine the profitability of the banking system. Through this study, we propose a series of measures applicable to the credit institutions to mitigate the impact of alignment with the new capital requirements.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Risk Management, Banking system, Basel III, Capital requirements
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Dumitru-Cristian OANEA, Ioana-Raluca DIACONU
 

Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Commercial bank, Co-operative bank, Financial crisis, Bank risk
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING
 

On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A) there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent) geographic area, etc.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Educational system, Pre-school, School fees, Scholarships, Educational programs
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Iulia PARA, Judith MOISE
 

The aim of this paper is to present the outcome of our researches regarding the spirit of tolerance in the Banat County. It is a personal overview (based on official documents and other bibliographical sources) of those aspects of the history of multicultural environment in Banat, which may be an explanation for the spirit of tolerance, cooperation, good relations. This attitude could be considered an inspiration for the rest of the country. The article describes the situation before 1989, when, according to the census, besides the local Romanians, there were also lots of Germans (Schwaben), Hungarians, Serbians, Italians, and Jews. After the events of 1989, the ethnic structure of the Banat County has changed – most of the Germans, Italians, and Jews have left the country and so did a lot of highly-skilled Romanians, who emigrated to Germany, Austria, the U.S.A., Australia and mainly Canada.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Tolerance, Multicultural, Cooperation, Multilingualism
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Gabriela PICIU
 

Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity) of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Enviromental Value at Risk, Volatility, Portofolio
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ionela-Valeria POPESCU
 

The country brand is becoming an ever more important topic considering that, as is the case of a company, the brand is what makes the difference between the product that each country proposes to its consumers, its characteristic features, the values it relates to and the image it promotes. The aim of the work is to outline the role that the country brand holds for tourism, analyzing the situation of two European states with high tourist potential. Moreover, throughout its summary, the work follows the extent to which, by having a strong country brand, it is possible to create a tourist brand reflecting the representative elements of the promoted country, and a clear image of the destination. The research consists of identifying the results obtained by Romania and Greece, following the outlining of a country brand, the implications it has on the economy, and the future directions that can be taken in the development of tourism according to the most important values of each such state.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Country brand, Tourism, Promise of value, Tourist brand, Destination image
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Dana S. POP
 

In this paper we will try to analyze the industrial policy of the EU, one of the seven flagships of the Europe 2020 strategy. It is recognized the fact that initiatives and transversal policies are needed in order to meet the challenge of enhancing industrial production across Europe. We will underline also the social dimension of the industrial policy. This policy relates both to restructuring and anticipation. Complementarities between national and EU interventions in industrial policy are a fundamental condition for the success of European industrial policy. We believe that a comparable coordination can be achieved in strengthening of framework conditions for industry, innovation and job creation.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Industrial policy, Production, Social dimension, Complementarities, Growth
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Viorel POP
 

Today world is facing more and more with different sources of pollution,the most affected areas being the proximity of the biggest industrial centers (chemistry, mining and metallurgy, machine building etc.). The industrial area of Baia Mare is a typical one for such a situation. To maintain a clean and healthy environment in Baia Mare and in the surroundings areas, important financial costs are necessary. Will local community be able to support these costs ? Or, finally, all responsible pollutants will be closed down.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Pollution, Damages, Depollutions expenditures, Regression analysis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mihaita-Cosmin M. POPOVICI
 

In this paper, we use a non-parametric approach to examine the efficiency of banks from Romania in the face of global financial crisis, during a ten year period, from 2002 to 2012. We limit our sample to this period in order to observe the dynamics of efficiency before and after the financial crisis. We develop a empirical model that involves estimating bank efficiency. In order to measure the efficiency growth of the banking industry, we calculate Malmquist index using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Our results suggest that during the first period under study (2002-2007), the banks from Romania have been more efficient, mainly because of reforms for the integration in to European Union. In the second period (2007-2012), financial crisis took its toll on banking efficiency even though banks have attempted to reduce personnel costs.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Bank, Efficiency, Romania, Malmquist index
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Nelu Eugen POPESCU, Anca ŞERBAN
 

The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures) that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Competitivness, Entrepreneurship, Economic growth
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Alexandra Elena M. POȘTOACĂ, Dorian-Laurențiu I. FLOREA
 

This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Media, TV analyses, Banking, Media landscape, Media indicators
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mircea Marian PRODAN, Adriana Petruta PRODAN, Anca Alexandra PURCAREA
 

Software maintenance has been and remains a significant part of the information technology business, no matter if you we are referring to legacy software, SAP, cloud or mobile applications. In the latest ten years we have witnessed a massive move of IT jobs into countries like India, Philippines, Brazil and Romania which generated a high degree of multicultural diversity. In this context it could have an impact on team overall productivity. A significant part of the software lifecycle budget varying from 40% to 70% is spent in the maintenance phase, from where there is a high interest in continuous increase of productivity both from the client and the supplier. Through this paper we are proposing to analyze previous written literature on this topic and use the experience in multicultural IT environment, as well as providing a fresh view of the factors contributing to higher level of performance.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Productivity, Multicultural teams, Software maintenance factors
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Monica PUIU, Carmen NISTOR
 

Nowadays companies worldwide are battling to survive and grow in what have continued to be highly adverse economic conditions. In this regard, many multinationals have intensified their efforts to detect and investigate the cases of corruption, as a special form of fraud. The purpose of this article is to analyze the cases of corruption identified within companies in the last year, the evolution of this negative phenomenon and the general perception of companies in this matter. Taking into consideration the aspects above we focus on the conceptual framework of corruption and the studies conducted in the past, later describing its main characteristics and form of manifestations. Finally, we present recent findings of corruption studies issued at the beginning of 2014.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Corruption, Multinationals
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Adriana RĂDAN UNGUREANU
 

The intelligent textiles industry uses the results of a wide range of scientific research fields which are multidisciplinary and cover the so called „key enabling technologies”. For the moment there are only a few countries generating and using this knowledge with impact on competitiveness, national development and creating high level paid jobs. The cultural differences among countries regarding the business approach and the ability to use certain knowledge bring more or less advantages for those countries. This paper covers two case studies, one about Elmarco from Liberec, Czech Republic, producing nanofiber and the other one about GreenYarn from Boston, Massachusetts, producing advanced materials. Both examples are using nanotechnology, one of the key enabling technologies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Intelligent textiles, KET’s, Knowledge, Nanotechnology, Culture
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Raluca-Daniela RIZEA, Roxana SARBU, Elena CONDREA
 

The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies. This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc.).

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Trends in the coffee industry, Coffee industry partnerships, Coffee taste test, Surveys, Sustainable coffee, Best practice benchmarking, Competitive strategy
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Mircea-Iosif RUS, Andreea HEGYI, Mircea PĂSTRAV
 

Global economic crisis has had, among other effects, the decline in real estate market.By default, this fact has led to a rebound in building material manufacturers activity.Consequently, they had to seek solutions to be able to stay on a market on a downward slope.One of these solutions was to allocate more importance of research to produce cheaper and better quality building materials which meet market demands.Such building materials should have superior proprieties relative to those previously produced and to meet the requirements resulting from the geographical,climatological and environmental areas where they are used.A comparative research funding of some important building materials from EU manufactures is presented. The impact of research investments on economical results is reviewed in conclusion of the study.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Funding, Research, Economic eficiency, Economic crisis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Elena RUSE, Georgiana SUSMANSCHI (Badea), Daniel DANECI-PATRAU
 

The existence of risk in economic activity can not be denied. In fact, the risk is a concept which exists in every activity, the term of risk being identified with uncertainty, respectively the (un)chance to produce an undesirable event. Internal audit and risk management aim at the same goal, namely the control of risks. Internal Audit performs several roles in risk management plan. The objectives of the internal audit function varies from company to company, but in all economic entities internal audit department aims to improve performance management, enterprise performance and thus improve the internal control system. This paper aims to demonstrate, among other things, that any event that may result in failure is unquestionably classified as risk.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Internal audit, Risk management, Risk control
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Maria-Ramona SÂRBU, Iuliana GAVREA MAZUR
 

This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Factors influencing FDI,FDI motivations
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Georgiana SUSMANSCHI (Badea), Luciana SPINEANU-Georgescu, Elena RUSE
 

We considered appropriate to study issues concerning communication between hierarchical structures within an economic entity. This lead us to a better understanding of how it is viewed and understood management, mainly the management system in the Romanian economic entities nowadays. In order to determine the degree of efficiency of communication within companies a set of questionnaires were used as primary data sources. In this respect, we believe that some benefits can be brought by this study for the entity such as gaining a better understanding of the role and the place it has the function of communication within the company and can become the basis of a plan of action to continuously improve communication.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Management, Quality communication, Communication efficiency
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Cristina Petronela SIMION, Catalina Monica ALEXE, Gheorghe MILITARU
 

The purpose of the present paper is to highlight that within contemporary economy, the market is built on brands rather than products. The market became an universe full of colors, names, logos and taglines. The brand resides within the hearts and minds of customers as being the sum of their perceptions and experiences upon the company’s promise. Consequently, looking at brands like Apple, Microsoft, IBM who understood that technological innovation must be sustained by strong communication and developed emblematic brands, also Romanian IT companies must pursue similar goals in developing own brands. Current research, backed-up by the case study, substantiates that IT companies who proved to be creative and aligned their communication strategy onto their activity profile not even successfully survived the economic crisis but even managed to outgrow the competition.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Brand development, Economic crisis, Market, Customers
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Roxana Mihaela SÎRBU, Cristina BORCA, Zotan-Bela FARKAS
 

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population). In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Integrated sustainable development, Europe 2020 Strategy, Green economy, Structural and cohesion funds, Gross Domestic Product, Employment rate
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Alain SPALANZANI
 

Le terme innovation est entendu comme le passage d’une invention vers un marché ou vers la société. La ville de Grenoble située au cœur des Alpes françaises a été « ville olympique » pour les jeux d’hiver de 1968 (Quand l’auteur parle de Grenoble par commodité, il entend plus généralement agglomération grenobloise au sens large voire parfois Isère.). Mais cette notoriété de ville sportive, près de 50 ans plus tard, a été effacée au profit de l’image d’une ville parmi les plus innovantes au monde. Cette image a été confirmée par le récent classement du magasineForbes (2013) qui positionne Grenoble dans le « top 15 », en cinquième place des villes les plus innovantes au monde.La capitale des Alpes est la seule ville française à apparaître dans ce « top 15 », derrière Eindhoven (Pays-Bas, 1ère), San Diego (Californie, 2ème), San Francisco (Californie, 3ème) et Malmö (Suède, 4ème), mais devant Stuttgart (6ème) et Boston (7ème).

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Innovation, Development, Grenoblois
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Gabriela ȘTEFURA
 

The research in tax compliance has approached various methods of data collection, but almost never methodological triangulation has been used. Triangulation helps the researcher in obtaining more reliable results, if they prove to be similar after each method used and also it increases the validity of the entire study. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of triangulation and especially methodological triangulation, by presenting the use of it in researching the compliance behaviour of three categories of individual Romanian taxpayers (doctors, lawyers/notaries and self-employed accountants) towards income reporting. Two studies have been conducted: a survey on actual taxpayers and a quasi-experiment on potential taxpayers. The studies had similar results, so the usefulness of triangulation is once again confirmed. The results may be useful to both theorists and practitioners.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Triangulation, Compliance, Behaviour, Individual taxpayers
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Anca Cristina STANCIU, Elena CONDREA, Mihaela CONSTANDACHE
 

Current economic developments, marked by recession of recent years have led directly to the emergence of some social issues with major implications on the world tourism. As a niche segment of the tourism industry, dental tourism is a relatively new phenomenon. The paper based on the study and analyze of content of different information and promotion sites for dental tourism, in order to identify the types of dental services and of the other components of the offer. Also the research has in view to identify factors of influence and the motivations that may cause this type of tourism development and the main destinations. The present paper seeks to highlight the extent of dental tourism worldwide and to identify opportunities for developing the dental tourism market in Romania.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Dental tourism, Development, Quality, Services
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ioana-Iuliana TOMULEASA
 

The economic world is currently under the sign of profound changes, determined, in a significant extent, by the mutations in financial markets, the regulatory and institutional changes, illustrating its powerful impact on the financial system actors. The paper’s main purpose is to provide a comparative analysis of the performance and efficiency of commercial banks in seven European Union countries and an empirical analysis regarding the soundness of the Romanian banking system. The analysis undertaken in the paper highlights the need for banks to apply essential adjustments in their activity, such as the orientation to a new banking model, or the gearing to the latest regulations and tighter conditions of supervision on the financial sector. There were pointed out a series of issues which captured the overwhelming implications of the global financial crisis on the “health” of the financial system in EU, noticing the need for further measures that have as a main goal the avoidance of a financial system collapse.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Subprime crisis, Systemic risk, Bank performance, Efficiency
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Adi Eleonor TRIFU
 

With the trigger of the Financial Crisis of the 2008, many companies in Romania and across the world had realized that the economic environment became very unstable. In order the compete in a turbulent external environment the managers of companies must know first the stability of the internal environment of the company. The analysis of the financial health is one the most important analysis because reveals the financial problems that the company have or will have in the near future. This paper is a comparison between the potential financial health of the petroleum and gas companies that have economic activities in Romania. The analysis is made in order to show the impact that had the Financial Crisis upon the Romanian Energy Industry. The results can be used by the managers of the energy companies or other industries in order to identify the financial problems of the companies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Oil Industry, Z-scores,Bankruptcy, Financial Crisis
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ovidiu Leonard TURCU, Andreea FERARU, Costel CEOCEA
 

The SMEs can easily adapt to the requirements of today's markets which became more and more competitive. The small and medium enterprises provide new opportunities for the employment and on another hand, they directly and indirectly contribute to support the activities of the large enterprises, either as suppliers or as customers. Fast-growing entrepreneurial companies will play an important role in re-balancing the economies all around the world and, therefore, their stimulation is more necessary than ever. Their rapid expansion outlines a growing potential to create jobs at a time when many european countries are facing high unemployment. In addition, entrepreneurship is vital for the future of emerging markets. The vulnerabilities of the SMEs are mainly linked to the decreasing available resources, to the excessive dependence on the entrepreneurs’ financial decisions and to the changing business environment. In order to revive the SMEs sector in Romania there is a need for more rigorous approaches, based on the implementation of business strategies.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: SMEs, Crisis, Evolution, Risks, Influence factors
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Magdalena VELCIU, Liliana GRECU, Eliza-Olivia LUNGU
 

In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to changing and challenging environments. This article presents an overview of best practices for competence assessment and validation in order to identify and select methods that have been effective in various European countries including Romania. The article concludes with a set of „learned lessons” and short recommendations in order to improve the framework of competence assessment in Romanian context. Our findings are useful for the new human resources management that aims toward efficiently usage of the workforce, inside companies and in a global labour market, encouraging flexibility and adaptability.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Competence assessment, Training, Human capital
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Ana-Maria ZAMFIR, Cristina MOCANU, Monica Mihaela MAER-MATEI
 

Is voluntary work a pathway channeling transition for school to work, or from inactivity to activity, or rather a top up activity for those already employed? The paper aims to identify trends in the voluntary work in Romania as against EU countries, to profile the persons engaged in voluntary work, as well as to analyze the way the profile changed over time. Also, the article emphasizes the work related values of those involved in voluntary works. We base our analyses on the date sets of European Value Survey for the period 1990-2008 (three rounds). The survey is based on probabilistic samples that are representative for the population aged 18+ years old.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Voluntary work, Work related values, Transition from school to work
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Carmen-Laura ZARZU, Cezar SCARLAT, Sorin STROE
 

The article is based on both literature review and authors’ experience related to about forty international projects – over more than a decade. Besides their creative potential based on the opportunity to exchange cross-cultural knowledge, the international projects have their negative side as well: if not timely identified, and properly managed, the cross-cultural clash might be a threat for the successful completion of the project. The authors investigate engineering, development and technical assistance (DTA) international projects, aiming at identifying their main characteristics, by the project lifecycle stages (as feasibility, design, implementation, evaluation). Among the notable results of the study are the management lessons learnt in order to mitigate cross-cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Keywords: Cross-cultural clash, Project lifecycle, Project management, Development and technical assistance, International projects, Engineering projects
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014
Volume II, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 3
Adriana RĂDAN UNGUREANU
 

„The Supply chain as strategic asset” published in 2011 is a book dedicated to professionals, coming from business as well as from the academic environment.This book may seem too complicated for those who don’t useeconomical theories in their work or too easy for those who expect a rich theoretical approach.

  • Type: Perspective, Opinon and Commentary
  • Published on: 3rd April, 2014
  • Received: 15th February, 2014
  • Final revision and acceptance: 25th March, 2014