Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Abdulrahman ALRASSI
 

The impact of the dialogue between cultures can meet national and "internal" dimensions and features or even regional and "external” ones. In order to grasp all the dimensions of this paradigm shift, it is important to try understanding the concepts of and interactions between culture, conflict and dialogue as an array, where conflict has to be always isolated between the other two concepts.The main aim of the paper is to underline the idea that just having a fair dialogue between cultures and religions followers can be established a sustainable harmony among them. Culture is closely connected to a community environment. Indeed, culture is essentially collective and it affects and influences human behavior. Culture helps people to build and preserve their own identity. Identity stems from the consciousness of difference. Sometimes, this identity sharpens after a confrontation. It strengthens the self‐esteem of the individual, and it makes it easier for the individual to accept compromises in deals with other parties without being afraid of “losing face” or “losing values” or “misunderstanding values”.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Intercultural dialogue, Harmony religion followers, Civilizations
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Hayati AGAOGLU
 

From a historical point of view, there are two types of gender which have been identified in language: natural gender and grammatical gender. Natural gender is a semantic system. According to Konishi (1993: 520) the nouns that stand for male animate beings are masculine, those that refer to female animate beings are feminine and the nouns that refer to inanimate entities are neuter. In this study we discuss L2 acquisition of the Romanian grammatical gender. The reason we chose to analyse gender is that Turkish does not have this category (Corbett 1991) and we want to see whether Turkish students have problems in learning the grammatical gender in Romanian

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Second Language Acquisition, Grammatical gender in Romanian, Turkish Language
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Violeta-Andreea ANDREIANA, Getuţa Camelia STOICA
 

During the last years, tourists started to turn away from the mass tourism and consider the alternative one. Therefore, various forms of tourism were born, among which the rural tourism, to be regarded from two perspectives: it contributes to local and regional development and brings benefits to tourism by creating a new, higher quality holiday concept. This requires the participation of local authorities in the preparing of area development strategies, involving the inhabitants and local traders. By following up the dramatic condition of the Romanian tourism, the insufficient development of the rural tourism and the low involvement degree of the local authorities, we proposed an assessment and recommended strategic marketing alternatives for the improvement of the current condition of the agro tourism guest houses.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: marketing marketing-mix agro-tourism guest houses alternatives strategy
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Anca BRATU, Sorin TOMA, Marin BURCEA
 

Purpose – This paper aims to debate the possibility of creating a social enterprise in a certain region of Romania.
Design/methodology/approach – In the first section there is a theoretical approach of some aspects of societal change processes and seven trends which indicate the change processes within the working environment. From the same point of view, there are also mentioned different types of entrepreneurial activities. The paper ends with a case study which is dealing with the study of the potential to create social enterprises to support rural communities in Bistrita Nasaud.
Findings – The data provides an array of social problems that are facing the people of this region: the lack of jobs, of qualifications required by the market, poverty, social exclusion of vulnerable groups.
Practical implications/originality/value – The presentation of a case study specific to social entrepreneurship within a larger theoretical framework triggers a complex approach in compliance with the specified theoretical aspects.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Change processes, Regional, Entrepreneurial activities
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Răzvan Ion N. CHITESCU
 

The exit from the Soviet sphere of influence begets serious political, diplomatic, social, financial, economic, technical and technological, religious, information, judicial, ecological, military changes in newly-established states. Therefore, the new geopolitical area in which they evolve faces the security requirements of the community with a set of highly complex issues generated by vulnerabilities such as competition for resources, ethnic and religious rivalries, border transparency, the populations’ mistrust in the judicial system of their own countries, in the economic system, in armed forces, corruption, organized crime, weapons and drugs trafficking, ecologic problems, migrations. In this world relatively accustomed with the new risks and vulnerabilities, the appearance of conflicts is unavoidable, and the issue of crisis and conflict management is a permanent concern for authorities in charge of security.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Information management, Conflict Management
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Emilia CLIPICI, Florin FRANT
 

The article starts from the realities of the European Union and details a wide range of aspects concerning the taxation mechanism and its improvement while also providing for macroeconomic stability; it compares the current taxation levels in the European Union, and analyses fiscal competition and its effects on legal persons. The research methods are represented by the systematic, comparative analysis, and by the complex approach of the researched topic, depending on the established purposes and tasks. In the paper, mathematical and statistical methods have been used, such as: classification, synthesis, comparative static and dynamic analysis, correlation analysis, economic-mathematical modelling, induction and deduction methods, graphical representation of the researched events and phenomena.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: fiscal system, fiscal competitiveness
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Amalia DUȚU, Mihaela DIACONU
 

Education and research are important pillars of society based on knowledge, aiming the ensurance of personal development of every citizen, the prosperity of society and sustainable development. A priority in its framework should be the education for labour market under the conditions of ensuring equal opportunities. The finality of education for the labour market should be the preparation for the permanent participation in the national and European labour market, the education being a preventing poverty factor. The purpose of this paper is to determine the differences between "ideal quality" of the higher education system from the point of view of the main stakeholders, namely direct clients (graduates) and the actual quality appreciated by them based on their experience with the labour market. The research results highlight the existence of some gaps between the skills and abilities effectively developed and those that should be developed in accordance with the requirements of employers, in graduates’ opinion, formed on the basis of experience gained as employees or job applicants in the first year after graduation.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Competencies, Abilities, Higher education, Employers, Graduates
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Victoria FIRESCU, Diana BRÂNZĂ
 

The paper aims to determine the level of voluntary disclosure of relevant information in accordance with the corporate governance code by Romanian companies listed on the stock exchange. Study methodology is based on both fundamental research on corporate governance theory and the empirical study on critical analysis of the principles of corporate governancedisclosure in annual reports of 20 listed companies BVB. The results of the empirical study confirm that the executive management of the majority of Romanian listed companies do not realize the benefits of corporate governance and consequently ignores the relevant disclosure on its basic principles. This paper can be a useful material for other future studies on the measurement of corporate governance practice Romanian companies.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Theories of corporate governance, Principles of corporate governance, Measurement of corporate governance
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Gyula Laszlo I. FLORIAN
 

After initially depicted the multidimensionality of organizational performance, I use a pooled dataset of 1204 observations across the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The observations included in the analysis have all non-missing data. An initial selection from a much larger dataset has been conducted in order to eliminate observations with missing data. Our results show that time effect in itself is not enough to impact significantly on organizational performance. Yet we have found evidence for structural changes in Romanian Economy affecting organizational performance. We have also documented that the effect of financial leverage on organizational performance is limited to certain industries. The model is valid in spite that the model does not account for (full) multidimensionality of organizational performance.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: firm performance organisational performance, product performance, economic value added, balanced scorecards
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ana-Maria GEAMĂNU
 

The series of events from March this year, with Cyprus in the spotlight created a lot of debate around the status of the “tax havens”, Cyprus itself being for a long time nominated as one of them. Yet, the latest report of The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveals the fact that due to the adherence to the standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters, there are currently only two states left to be called ”tax havens” and the list doesn’t include Cyprus. The aim of this article is to present the evolution of the former “tax havens” grouped on four main geographic areas where they are concentrated and to bring forward the important changes that have been made in terms of taxation and commercial laws in a revised and more regulated legal framework that has conferred these states the possibility to be erased from the black list of “tax havens”.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Tax haven, Tax policy, Transparency, Exchange of information, Commercial law
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Blanca GRAMA
 

The dynamic features of the labor market outline the perfect background in which organization are constantly dealing with the necessity to implement change in strategy, structure, processes or culture. On this background the factors that can damage the process of organizational change receive more and more attention. Cynicism in organizational change is a possible source of resistance which starts to capture researchers interests. Organizational cynicism research represents a new subject in the specialized literature of Romania. Research on this topic show that organizational cynicism is the result of attitudes made out of beliefs, affects and behavior toward organization. On the basis of the reviews and conceptualization we propose a research agenda of cynicism on organizational change.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Cynicism, organizational change
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Claudia Doina GREC
 

The attention deficits, the hyperactivity / impulsiveness as well as the deficits in the executive functioning expose students to the risk of poor school performance, social isolation and antisocial behaviors. For them, it is more difficult to assimilate organizational, planning and time management skills, in comparison with their peers enrolled in the mainstream education. School environment requires planning, control, coordination and evaluation of the interactions and ways of active participation in the educational process. Therefore, the case study concerning a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder associated with reading and writing difficulties demonstrates the necessity and effectiveness of the psycho-pedagogical intervention in school, an environment that represents a propitious context to exercise self-control.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Attention deficit and hyperactivity, Psycho-pedagogical evaluation tests, Neuropsychological evaluation tests, Reading and difficulties, Psycho-pedagogical intervention program
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU, Vasile ILIE
 

The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: banking supervision, banking regulation, financial stability, banking system
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Anca-Simona HROMEI, Maria-Mădălina VOINEA
 

This paper deals with the fact that nowadays, society and business, show high expectations regarding the accounting discipline, and therefore professionals in this area should expand their horizons to meet all requirements. First of all, accounting assumed a certain responsibility to the public interest, by its fundamental purpose, namely to provide financial-accounting information, information that will form the basis of decision making. Second of all, for the successful fulfilment of the public responsibilities, accountants must rely on elements of doctrine, ethics, or ethics and morality. The study wants to show the importance of the accounting discipline, which has begun to increasingly focus on the creation of a moral or ethical basis, putting these issues on the same level with respecting the law. The boundary between what is legal but not ethical or moral is very small, and there were many business cases where unethical behaviour led to business failure.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: ethics in accounting, morality, public responsibility
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ion Gr. IONESCU
 

The financial crisis is a global phenomenon that has marked the evolution of all economic sectors. The drastic change of the consumer behavior has led the trade companies to choose between two survival strategies: the product development strategy and the exit strategy.Carrefour company bases its strategy on five values deeply rooted in the consumer`s conscience: an aggressive pricing policy, based on discount; a range of 50000 items sold under the concept “everything under one roof”, quality, modernity and innovation. The strategy rests on three pillars: customer orientation, transformation and innovation. The product policy is focused on exploiting the products which belong to Carrefour trademarks and the pricing strategy allows the customer to purchase a variety of quality products, at low prices. The promotions acquire an aggressive tint in the company`s marketing strategy, the success being guaranteed by their ability to allow consumers to maintain a regular and economical consumption. For this company, the knowledge of the customer`s psychology is an advantage which allows the implementation of some psychological trics for sales growth. The strategies implemented by Carrefour enable the company`s survival in a changing competitive environment and generate profit. This result proves that Carrefour deserves the market leading place.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: actor, performance athlete , affectivity, training psychological, talent, success
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ana-Cristina LEŞE
 

In the present paper we focus on the athlete and the artist, who are selected according to their physical, psychological and artistic abilities in order to perform high quality professional activities. The athlete’s and the artist’s psychological training are aimed at achieving professional success (the phrase success is used in the sense of outstandingly good result). As we have found common elements in the psychological training for both domains, we have tried to emphasize the common ground they share, in a process of transfer of specific means (specific exercises). In a practical study, we demonstrate the importance of the psychological element within the general training for those practising these professions (arts).

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: actor, performance athlete , affectivity, training psychological, talent, success
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Oana-Ramona LOBONŢ, Nicoleta Claudia MOLDOVAN, Anca Sofia POPESCU
 

Corruption is nowadays a highly questioned matter, the subject of numerous debates and studies in recent years. The increasing awareness of the dramatic effects of corruption on a country's progress accelerates the examination of causes of the occurrence and spread of corruption worldwide. To achieve a higher degree of relevance in determining the level of corruption, this paper attempts to outline a questionnaire based analysis on the perception of corruption in Romania; the means used were the e-mail and social networks. The respondents were asked to assess certain statements, and to agree or disagree with them. The results are in line with the previous research: most items express strong agreements, highlighting a perception strongly influenced by the belief that in Romania, corruption is pervasive. Given the current context strongly influenced by the financial crisis, our paper represents the effect of the importance and usefulness of the subject for practice and current research in the socio-economic domain.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: level of corruption, perception of corruption, questionnaire based analysis, Romania
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Oana-Ramona LOBONŢ
 

Poverty assessment requires and is generally based on the existence of well-defined levels of standard of living. Therefore, in this paper we try to investigate the opportunities for mesuring poverty offered by economic practice. as well as to outline the real possibilities for building an aggregate index, sufficiently complex to reveal the evolution of poverty as economic deprivation in Romania. In this paper, the construction of an Aggregate Romanian Index of Deprivation involves a subjective judgment because this index represents one of the methods used for configure the level and dynamics of poverty and social exclusion. The proposed index focuses on specific issues such as combining a number of indicators, chosen to cover a range of economic, social and housing issues, into a single deprivation score for each regions in Romania.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Aggregate Romanian Index of Deprivation, poverty, social exclusion
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Zina MARCU căs. CIORAN
 

The monetary policy is a basic component of the economic policy. It has an important role in fulfilling the main objectives of the economic politics, which is: price stability, insurance of a balanced economic raise, full occupancy of human resources and the external payment balance stability insurance. Inflation is a negative thing affecting the economy both on short and long term. On short term, it erodes the purchasing power of currency and thus, it mostly affects the retirees and those with fixed incomes. On long term, inflation discourages the investments and the economic growth. The purpose of this paper consists in the revision and presentation of the specialized literature concerning the impact the monetary policy has on the main macro-economical variables, especially on inflation, in terms of influence of the monetary authority decision on economic and financial conjunction. It was found that the monetary authorities of any country can evaluate exactly the rhythm and the effects of their actions on the economy by understanding the mechanisms which the monetary policy uses to influence the economy.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Inflation targeting,Monetary policy, Price stability, Central bank independence
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ştefan MATEI
 

Many of the concepts and techniques for strategic management have been developed and successfully applied within many companies. As managers are trying to manage better and to face the changes in economical climate, a company develops over four phases of strategic actions and management. These phases consist of basic financial planning, prognosis-based planning, external environment oriented planning and strategic management. Moreover, strategic management consists of four basic elements which ensure a structured format for examination of company strategies: scanning the business environment, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, evaluation and control.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: human resource, strategies, planning, evaluation, control, business environment
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
 

In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: promotion mix, promotion strategy, sport marketing, sport promotion
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Jorică Liliana NEGOESCU
 

We live in a mixture of images. From all side we are assaulted by various and disparate visual information. Landmarks of contemporary art of a restless world are in constant motion and transformation. The border between the visual arts and information, especially for the new generations, is in a continuous confrontation. But here, the field of the arts once in elite, being conditioned by the access to education and culture offered by a particular social standard and by the welfare condition, tends to expand and become more accessible to all social groups. The images tend to become a subject of debate. Along with the new millennium, increasing masses of people discover the cultural tourism, take note of the existence of the art and overwhelmed with their presence the great museums of the world.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Masterpiece, Configuration, Language, Morphology, Syntax
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Cristina PARASCHIV
 

Purpose – This study aims to highlight the novelty brought by the institution of fiduciary contract regulated by the New Civil Code.
Design/methodology/approach – Using comparison method, the study empirically examines the institution of the fiduciary contract, the impact of this law institution on the business environment, the conditions of validity of this contract and its effects.
Findings – The study demonstrates that the Fiducia is a progressive institution, a legal warranty instrument and a good business opportunity, but which is not widely used.
Practical implications/originality/value – Taking into account that the Fiducia is a major innovation especially in banking practice, it is necessary to harmonize the regulations of the New Civil Code with other special regulations, to prevent negative interactions that Fiducia may have with insolvency law, banking law or corporate law.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: fiduciary contract, warranty instrument, banking practice, lawyer
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Marius PIȚURLEA, Georgiana Alina IANCU, Dorin IANCU
 

Knowledge seems to be the only power that ensures social progress, economic and democratic that is not eroded over time. Orientation to capture and assimilation of knowledge is the most organizations confirmation of functional maturity consistent with the essence of the traim. Knowledge information has become an important economic factor and began to be subject to management processes. Knowledge is usually defined as the power to understand and capture the essence of the material, use of certitudes and information obtained in the form of experience or education. The knowledge society represents a new economy where innovation process (the ability to absorb and convert new knowledge to create new products and services) becomes decisive.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: knowledge, sustainable development, competitiveness, strategy
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Daniela PÎRVU, Consuela NECȘULESCU, Marian TAICU
 

Regionalisation is one of the key defining features of the contemporary world politics. Regionalisation is a complex issue from an European perspective. In Romania, regionalization generated numerous disputes and controversies, both political and ideological. In the context of the demarches to consolidate Romania's regionalization and decentralization, this paper aims to analyse the necessity of creating a region in the South of country with Arges County as a pole of development.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: regionalization, development, disputes
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ana Monica POP
 

In the present paper we will try to analyze the Decision Support System (DSS) and the way in which it is applied or not in the Romanian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) (with examples). We also will see if the system is beneficial for these Romanian Enterprises. We analyzed through interviews 50 small and medium-sized Romanian enterprises. They do not accept their name to be published. As a consequence, we will present only the results. It is underlined in the conclusions the differences between the small and the medium size enterprises in respect of the models they are using. The most important benefits of DSS (generally) are represented by increased efficiency, competitive advantages and better managerial process.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Decision Support System, Small and Medium Size Enterprises, Information Systems
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Dana S. POP, Cosmina CRĂCIUNESCU
 

In the present paper we will try to present the relationship between the emerging economies and the concept of sustainable development. Emerging economies are considered very important in the context of globalization and some economists believe that there are at least five emerging economies that might change the world in the future. These economies are confronted with considerable problems since they have to compete with developed economies, so they need a sustainable development in order to do that. Sustainable development refers to meeting the needs of the present generation without jeopardizing the future generations, stressing the importance of creating a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. In our opinion, emerging economies do need a sustainable development in order to have competitive economies and to obtain remarkable success in the future.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Development, Sustainable development, Emerging economies
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Adriana Florina POPA, Andreea Gabriela PONORICA, Oana Georgiana STĂNILĂ
 

Accounting globalization follows the transformation of the accounting system into an economic and financial model, able to inform more correctly and rapidly the users of the accounting information, amongst which the investors and the creditors are clearly delimited. Within this context, the need of a harmonized and well oriented accounting system has become imperative. The adoption of a set of international accounting standards in Europe is intended to provide uniform and high quality financial information on the financial markets which would consolidate the global market efficiency, reducing the cost of capital accessing for European companies. There are numerous opinions according to which the IFRS adoption could be an element of abolishing the discrepancies between the accounting systems, offering at the same time a high level of transparency of the financial information. Our objective is to analyze the opportunity of implementing the IAS/IFRS referential by the Romanian companies, as well as their instant reaction within this context.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: IFRS, IFRS adoption, Romanian accounting, listed companies
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Laura – Maria POPESCU, Ileana NIȘULESCU
 

The article shows an analysis of tourist activity in the period of crisis, as well as as far as this sector is retrieves in the process of increase in ecomonic among countries concerned. Have been taken into account three areas with different approaches in the field of tourism so as to be able to easily highlight difference between tradition in the case of Greece, exploitation and operation of the investment in Bulgaria and development in progress, in the case of Romania. In this way, the work of front proposes to analyze determinants underlying competitiveness in tourism from the perspective of the three states in direct competition, to highlight effects of communication on the competitiveness in the tourism industry. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a series of responses, from the perspective of the development strategies and communication, which could explain the results so different in its turn to the three national economy in the tourism sector.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: economic growth, tourism, development, investment, communication
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Angela PRECUP
 

The pedagogical and scholar press appeared in the Mureş county during the XXth century represented a true cultural laboratory for the Romanian local press. The year 1918 (marking the creation of the modern Romanian state) represented a starting point in this evolution, determining the birth of the Romanian school system and press in Târgu Mureş. Thus, an entire generation of teachers, some of them with relevant journalistic experience, were brought to Târgu Mureş in the 20s to contribute to the development of the young local school system. With a function and a structure placing it between the cultural press (by its content) and the specialized press (by its connection to the school environment and public), the pedagogical and scholar press of the Mureş county totalizes during the last century 63 publications of great relevance, due to the roles it assumed in different periods, as an informative and cultural shelter for the Romanian general local press.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: pedagogical press, scholar press, Mures county, XXth century
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Ioan RADU, Elena Monica SABĂU, Cleopatra ŞENDROIU
 

This paper provides an effective tool «fraud risk map« for organizations and auditors in mathematic assessment procedures, with real, tangible results, regarding the organization’s fraud risk exposure. Overcoming the fade and purely theoretical risk assessment methods («based on professional judgement – risk: high, medium, low«), the paper presents risk indicators as warning signals and quantitative and qualitative methods for risk assessment. Illustrating scalability methods and developping a practical tools for material misstatement of the economic entity financial statements, the case study presented, on sales operations, brigs added value to auditors work in the fraud risk assessment procedures.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: fraud risk, risk assessment, risk map, sales audit
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
R.D. RIZEA, R. SÂRBU, E. CONDREA
 

Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation), and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses), customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: competitiveness, information, competitive advantages
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Dan SERGHIE
 

The construction of a sequential model performance based on indicators broken down by factors and variables is relevant because it provides a complete picture of the effectiveness of collaborative structures built and operated on the basis of policies induced by the organizations involved. It also provides a longitudinal analysis of the effectiveness of collaboration for innovation. I will define the performance analysis model of collaborative innovation as a conceptual tool consisting of a set of elements and relationships between them, allowing the quantification of the expression of innovation performance as a result of interaction of several organizations. Applying such a model involves the analysis and estimation of the added value of each segment of interorganizational innovation cycle as part of the overall performance obtained by combining existing or created knowledge. From this point of view, it is necessary to develop an ontology, a common ground on which this model can be built.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Collaborative innovation, Complexity, Performance measurement
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Mihaela ȘTEȚ
 

The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Consumer, Energy, Electricity, Heat, Behavior
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Cristian Marius TOMA, Vasilica TOMA, Dumitru ZAIȚ
 

The National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation 2007 – 2013, called herein the National Plan II, represents the main instrument used to implement the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation. Universities play a unique role in the development of the knowledge-based society, through its contribution to knowledge generation, transmission, dissemination and utilization. The essential role of the university is to shape the highly qualified human resource, a process that implies a symbiosis between the education and research, the education system performances contributing in this way to a great extent to the society development. The highly qualified human resource represents an important asset of a nation. This study is dedicated to the analysis of the assessment criteria for the Exploratory Research Projects (ERP) handed in the competitions in 2007, 2008, 2011 and 2012 and to highlight the importance of improving the assessment criteria in order to improve their quality.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Assessment criteria; University scientific research; NP II; IDEAS Programme; Exploratory Research Projects.
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Sabina ŢUCA
 

In recent years the global economy has been facing a very severe economic and financial crisis. The leading economies of the world are going through a period of deep recession. The aim of this article is to emphasize the causes of the current crisis as well as the measures taken to counteract its effects. In order to achieve this purpose, representative articles on the subject have been analyzed. Compared to other crises, the current crisis is based on totally different causes. That is why the countries affected by the crisis should take unusual measures for the recovery of their economy. However, whatever measures had been already taken, the economic crisis is not over, predictions in this regard being mostly pessimistic.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Economic crisis, Financial innovations, Spread of the crisis, Austerity
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 2
Aurelia ȚURCAN, Tatiana COLESNICOVA
 

The situation with women's entrepreneurship is analyzed in the given scientific paper. Special emphasis is put on the one of the main obstacles to women, the mentality of the inhabitants in our country. The purpose of this study is to identify characteristics of women's entrepreneurship in Moldova, the motives of the occurrence of women in business, the specific needs of women entrepreneurs and others that will enrich the theoretical knowledge and provide the scientific basis for the implementation of social and economic gender policy in the business.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th October, 2013
  • Keywords: Women's business ,Entrepreneurship,Small and medium-sized enterprises ,Successful managers,Double burden of women,Gender differences
  • Received: 2nd August, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 30th September, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ileana ANASTASE (BĂDULESCU)
 

The paper enumerates the factors that determine the production potential of the company, points out the references to the opinions of economic experts in terms of productive investment. The criteria are "inferred" and economically interpreted. Decision making is based on initial information, on a number of criteria that must be led by the manager of the company. Productive potential of the enterprise can be determined only conditionally. Business potential depends on a number of exogenous and endogenous factors including professional qualities of the entrepreneur. In this context, the potential success of the company is determined by the entrepreneur, which is the "motoric" force of the enterprise and needs to possess certain professional, psychological and analytical qualities.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Economic potential, Productive potential, Productive investments, Works by contract, Entrepreneurial qualities
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ioana-Diana BUFAN
 

This paper is a literature review on management accounting and it examines the necessity and the role of budgeting and budget controlling in the management process.Budgets are necessary to highlight the financial implications of plans, to define the resources required to achieve these plans and to provide a means of measuring, viewing and controlling the obtained results, in comparison with the plans. Many managers, especially those familiar with accounting, criticize budgets saying that this implies additional consumption of effort and waste of time, claiming that there are too many estimates in the budget and that these estimations are unreliable, for it to be useful. And yet, any large company prepares budgets. Why? Because it forces managers to foresee, to study trends and develop necessary strategies. Also, the budget can prevent imminent issues. Budgets are excellent communication tools, pointing out the operational and financial objectives of the period. Budgets communicate to the upper and middle management which are the top-management’s expectations, and also communicate the management’s priorities to the lower levels. In some cases, it can give a manager the authority to dispose of certain funds, but being limited by the budget. Furthermore, the budget sets the prices for internal services and is the basis for performance evaluation. The controlling function confirms or not the compliance or noncompliance of the results with the predetermined objectives, highlighting occurred deviations and the causes that produced them. Budget controlling compares costs, revenues and actual performance with the budget so that, if necessary, it can be reviewed and corrective measures can be applied. This paper also includes a case study in a Romanian company and the collected data will be valued and interpreted in detail. Not all managers in our country understand the importance of budgeting. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the necessity of budgets in planning and controlling of a company’s activity.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Budgeting, Planning, Budget controlling, Flexible budgets
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Emilia CLIPICI
 

In international economic relations, credit is an indispensable element, being viewed by most specialists as the engine of a national economy, due to the role of the driving investments and based on them, the employment, the increase in the production, etc., the use and typology according to the duration and nature of the operations performed. Export credits are, along with the other types of loans, part of the specialized loan category held in the portfolio of most commercial banks. Export credits or export pre-financing credits are loans granted by banks to business entities with production made for export in order to support or promote it, or to cope with exceptional needs occurred in the period of making the export production. This paper describes recent trends noticed in export credit insurance, especially from 2008 to 2011.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Credit insurance, Insurance market, Global financial crisis
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Csongor CSŐSZ
 

Each year before the preparation of annual financial statements the entity’s assets need to be presented and evaluated. In order to these assets to be recorded in the financial statements at fair value, they need regular revaluation. Revaluations should be made with sufficient regularity so that the accounting value does not differ substantially from that which would be determined using fair value at balance sheet date. This way, the true and fair view of the financial statements is guaranteed. The study contains an analysis of the 52 listed entities on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) tier II. on their revaluation policy, in relation with debt ratio of the entity, size of the entity, amount of tangible assets (tangible assets’ share in total assets) and in relation with the seniority (age) of tangible assets.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Revaluation policy, Debt ratio, Amount of tangible assets
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ciprian ALEXANDRU,Nicoleta CARAGEA,Ana Maria DOBRE
 

Multivariate data analysis in the context of autoregressive models has evolved as a standard instrument in econometrics. In present, there are developed packages available in R for estimating time series models; one of the most useful package is vars (Pfaff, 2008) containing functions for diagnostic testing, estimation of a restricted models, prediction, causality analysis, impulse response analysis and forecast error variance decomposition. Using the examples provided in the vars vignette, the authors tried to obtain results for the different methods and functions on the base of macroeconomic data set for Romania.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Autoregressive models, Testing, R, vars
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Maria Irina DROMERESCHI
 

Whatever his/her professional development would be, a young person needs a natural transition from being qualified to being competent. Here we find the dimensions of a multi-faceted investment in three areas: knowledge, „savoir-faire” or skill, and „savoir-etre” or compliance with one’s own position. All current economic issues are debated in terms of : value, integrity, character, knowledge, vision, responsibility, self-control, social integration, team work, community, competence, social responsibility, quality of life, fulfilment, leadership, duty, purpose, dignity, meaning. Scale technology needs people who have the future in their blood. That is why the basic aim of education should be to enhance the ability to adapt. When applied, the principle of diversity would result in a single system of techniques which work in three crucial areas : study, human relatioships and option. The ability to live involves different ways of sending information and behaviour simultanously and it will be the modern educator’s tool in making judgements. This paper assumes that economic education in general and entrepreneurship in paricular, help young people to perceive, to identify and to understand the factors that, influence their life quality directly or indirectly, to contribute to the development of the economy, and to a better management of society. Moreover, entrepreneurship education instils respect for value, work and innovation. One way of putting this kind of education into practice is by school partnerships.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Economic education, Entrepreneurship education, Entrepreneurship, Partnership school
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Vlad FLOREA
 

As main model for a manager, the German managers come from all walks of life, are graduates of higher technically and economically education, paying special attention to the individual qualities of leadership and to community professional competence to professionalism and to experience. In this paper we describe managers’ style of leading. A key feature of the Euroentrepeneur and Euromanager activity is achieving a sixth feature (creating outposts in major economic centers of Europe) that is not addressing to traditional management techniques, but making use of specific techniques. The main conclusion reveals that the consolidation of European single market will grow the European management model rapidly, with its economic, social and cultural traits that will confer distinction from the North American and Japanese management.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Managers, Euroentrepeneur, Euromanager
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Anca-Simona HROMEI
 

Given the emphasis in recent years on reorganizing operations, as strategies for achieving the medium and long term objectives of the companies, this paper aims to enable a theoretical study on the subject of mergers between companies, by analyzing the recent literature regarding this subject, both national and international, focusing on mergers’ evolution in Romania, the reasons which determine their achievement as well as on outlining the state of knowledge regarding subsequent performance of the companies involved in these transactions.A need for further research on the topic of mergers’ performance has been identified, particularly on the medium and long term, as existing studies have not provided enough information in order to formulate a principle regarding the impact of mergers on a company’s performance.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Merger, Reasons for mergers, Financial performance, Impact on companies
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Izabella KRÁJNIK, Endre GÖNCZ
 

This paper contains summaries of theories with notions of social insurance and mathematics with a high degree of novelty and complexity. The pension systems around the world are experiencing a period of crisis.Under these conditions, the study aims to describe the previous or anticipated changes happened and are happening in order to conceive then correct as a coherent field of pensions.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Accounting, Benefits, Employees, Pensions
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Radu Mărginean
 

Among the modern calculation methods used in managerial accounting, with a large applicability in the industrial production field, we can find the standard costing method. This managerial approach of cost calculation has a real value in the managerial accounting field, due to its usefulness in forecasting production costs, helping the managers in the decision making process. The standard costing method in managerial accounting is part of modern managerial accounting methods, used in many enterprises with production activity. As research objectives for this paper, we propose studying the possibility of implementing this modern method of cost calculation in a company from the Romanian furniture industry, using real financial data. In order to achieve this aim, we used some specialized literature in the field of managerial accounting, showing the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The case study demonstrates that the standard costing modern method of cost calculation has full applicability in our case, and in conclusion it has a real value in the cost management process for enterprises in the Romanian furniture industry.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Managerial accounting, Management process, The standard costing method, The furniture industry
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Corina MICULESCU
 

In the context of present day economy characterized by continuous change, enterprises are forced to make a series of modernizations in order to improve technology, to access various market niches, to satisfy clients’ demands. Consequently, enterprises invest annually substantial financial capital in fixed assets. These investments influence the situation of a firm over many years. A good decision may lead to a tremendous rise in profit and, as a consequence, to an increase in share price on the market. However, a bad decision may lead to bankruptcy. Thus, making decisions in the process of budget allocation, cost control and realist forecasting is vital for the future of an enterprise. Establishing investment budgets implies engaging funds in projects that will determine generating and increasing cash flow, estimated over a longer period of time. The essence of a good process of establishing a budget is to estimate correctly the cash inflows generated by the project. Thus, the present paper analyses the basic principles of deciding on investment budgets, the modalities of estimating cash flows, making decisions for development and making decisions for replacement within investment processes.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Cash flow, Investment project, Budget, Net cash flow, Opportunity cost, Accounting net income
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Marius Nicolae MICULESCU
 

Any economic activity is mainly aimed at obtaining the highest possible efficiency. However, the level of profitability of an organization is influenced by a number of factors and being aware of these factors is particularly important for the efficient targeting of the organizational activities. As the prerequisites to achieve a high return are primarily the low production cost, our focus should be directed towards multilateral knowledge of the cost.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Efficiency, Cost information system, Managerial accounting, Control
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Carmen NISTOR, Monica PUIU, Anca Simona HROMEI
 

The number of cross-border mergers and acquisitions has increased lately. Along with these the possibilities to commit fraud have multiplied. This article synthesizes the research undertaken so long in this field, aiming to approach specific issues related to fraudulent practices in the reorganizational process of companies.Beginning with the analysis of the international accounting framework regarding companies restructuring operations, we present specific issues related to fraudulent practices. Many researchers have tried to explain the poor performance of the acquisition process and the fact that many deals do not create value to companies involved. In our approach we identify key problems faced and solutions used by acquirers during the stages of the acquisition process. Based on the international practices the results show that cross-border mergers and acquisition is a complex process, in which companies involved have to pay attention to national and international accounting regulation and the features identified in each country.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Fraud, Cross-border, Mergers, Acquisitions National and international accounting regulation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Florina POPA
 

Public administration reform as a response to the requirements of socio-economic environment change, is a process that develops both at central and local level, aiming to an institutional framework achievement, suitable for administrative and financial decentralization, under the European Union standards. Public administration modernization assumes checking and changing all sides of statal organization this being the result of strengthening its capacity of public policies improvement towards the cohesion of territorial development accomplish.The study presents some particularities of decentralization in the context of administrative reform, the impulses for decentralization expansion, and, respectively, for development of local government, its impact on locally and nationally economic development.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Public administration, Decentralization, Local governance
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI
 

The banking industry from all over the world has been the object of DEA and SFA analysis by a significant number of researchers. Various type of DEA and SFA models have been applied in performance assessing problems and the banks production processes have further motivated the improvement of this models. This paper surveys 30+ published applications in various countries.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Bank efficiency, Data envelopment analysis, Stochastic frontier analysis
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Tudor Andrei RĂDULESCU
 

This article aims to identify and describe some of the advantages that a debtor would have during insolvency proceedings. Thus we argue that firms in default entered in insolvency can enjoy certain facilities which may finally transform in a successful plan of reorganization. The three heritage protection mechanisms considered are: (i) suspension of all judicial and extrajudicial actions in order to establish a claim against the debtor or its assets, (ii) prohibit vital service providers (electricity, gas, water, telephone etc.) the suspension of services to captive consumer debtor, (iii) immediately cease any enhancement calculation of amounts due.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Insolvency, Reorganization, Insolvency proceedings
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Maximilian ROBU
 

In a highly dynamic and competitive environment as the online one, SMEs need to adapt and change their behavior, requiring a rethinking of classification criteria. Social media is changing the way people interact, but also changing organizations and how they operate. Social networks are no longer just a simple tool to create a network of friends; they have become a destination for business. We can also talk of a new world of business, a new way of working; the freelancers have a share of the increasingly significant. Cloud computing is the support for all changes in the current environment, providing the tools necessary to conduct activities anywhere. Given the mentioned arguments, we consider that the classification of SMEs according to a new set of criteria: operating environment, geographical area, type of employees in the company or how they organize marketing activities.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: SME, Digital economy, Cloud, Modern
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Alexandra RUSĂNEANU
 

In order to be successful in a competitive environment and to meet strategic objectives is necessary to implement a suitable performance management system for a certain business sector or industry. The performance measurement system based only on financial aspects worked well in industrial era, but now the priorities have changed and the most important sector is the one based on services and information technology. The main objective of the article is to present an analysis of the most relevant performance management systems. This analysis will contain a detailed review of the most used models of performance management, a SWOT analysis for selected models and suggestions for improving them.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Performance management, Balanced Scorecard, Strategic management, Performance Prism
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Anca ȘERBAN, Oana DUMITRAȘCU
 

The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Balanced scorecard, Total performance scorecard, Human resource
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Silvius STANCIU, Nicoleta STANCIUC, Loredana DUMITRASCU, Roxana ION, Costel NISTOR
 

Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Risk, Traceability, Horse. Beef meat, Business Continuity Plan
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ștefan MATEI
 

Strategic human resource management issue is treated by many authors, following this paper we will try to clarify, to emphasize the role of this concept and how it should be implemented in domestic comapniile. Defining the concept of strategic human resource management, requires perfect understanding of human resource management, the concept referring to the philosophies, policies, procedures and practices related with people management in an organization. The main purpose of human resource management is to add value not only to the process of obtaining, but also to the products and services themselves, together with increasing the level of work quality and creating a better standard of living for the employees.The human resources can be considered economical resources and thus a strategy generating costs opprotunities is required. Even though it is very relevant for the huuman resources positions, the HR departments do not welcome the concept of „cost opportunity” probably because the individuals in managing positions consider themselves working with people and not with money or maybe they are specialists regarding the job positions related to the personnel and not regarding the decisions with direct impact on the business. The actual reality proves that the human resource „faults” can largely generate cost opportunities within a company.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Management, Strategy, Human resource planning, Strategic thinking Business
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Mihaela ȘTEȚ
 

The study analyses the problem of financing the innovation that is one of the biggest problems facing the companies that want to be innovative. As a consequence, the paper reveals the main forms of funding the technological progress with their advantages and drawbacks. In particular, it is highlighted the role of innovation and research in the performance of SME and, in relation with them, the difficulties for this companies to access funding under crisis conditions.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Innovation, Technological progresss, Funding Research
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Andrei STOIAN, Radu BECHERESCU
 

Within the last two decades, the world has seen many financial crises which have spread around the globe and affected both developing and developed countries. Although each had its own particularities, there are some similar patters that stand out, most being related to an over evaluated asset in a country or region and a sharp withdrawal of funds that led to the burst of the crisis. Looking into each of them, there are some common causes and addressing these may help prevent any future financial shocks.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Financial crisis, Global imbalances, Asymmetric information, Currency peg
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Marinela TANASCOVICI, Alina HAGIU
 

FDIs have also entailed a series of political implications in addition to the economic effects, especially in the context of the accession of Central and Eastern European countries to the European Union.According to the specialists, for a given country, intense growth periods are characterized by the attraction of important flows of foreign direct investments (Lipsey, 2000, page 72). Although Romania has experienced high economic growth rates, it was not supported to the same degree by foreign direct investments.For the countries with developing or in transition economies, these resources can not be provided from the domestic economy, and therefore, these states elaborate their policies to attract foreign investors capable to provide the best possible investment structure.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Foreign direct investments, Economic growth, Integration, Globalization, European Union
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Dragos G. TURLIUC, Andreea N. POPOVICI
 

The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Single Supervisory Mechanism, Banking Union, Macro-prudential policies, Monetary union
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Mariana VUŢĂ
 

The world economic and financial crisis has shown that, within the European Union as well as the rest of the world, the situation of public finance is not stable even in the presence of a certain level of fiscal and budgetary coordination. Under these circumstances, even if the Lisbon Strategy would have been adopted at European level and an attempt to reach the established targets would have been put into practice after 2007, the year the crisis began, the necessity for starting new European projects which would lead to a better financial coordination and governing of the 27 EU states was acknowledged. If the Lisbon strategy planned for the EU to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy by 2010, the slowdown of the economic growth, the increase in unemployment and public finance and banking issues have determined, after 2008, measures that would result in the economic recovery of European states. Starting from the actual situation, the present work wishes to highlight the position of public finance in EU countries, in the context of budgetary problems which interfered with the settlement of the stability and growth accord after 2007. In this context, this work will emphasize the causes that led to the improvement and revision of certain key-elements of the PSC, and also the consequences of their implementation.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Stability and growth pact, Six-Pack, Government debt, Government deficit
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Liliana Adela ZIMA
 

Brand is a trustworthy, relevant, and distinctive promise to the consumer. The Brand Manager must understand that he is responsible for the building of long term brand equity and he must keep the brand from both a Strategic and Tactical standpoint.The strategy of Adam Opel AG is focused on brand equity because it is important to add value for customer from products and services. The total sum of all the benefits, features, and associations, both functional and non-functional that make a brand competitive and distinctive in its market is the process of Brand Positioning. I made a study at Adam Opel AG in particularly at European Business In this study are observed the main tasks and responsibilities of each member of the team. The European Business Team has a lot of influence over the company which is a Marketing lead company. Brand Management is the management of the marketing value chain to consistently build brand equity, market share and profitability. In present, it is shifting our focus to brands, which include all the five “P”s of marketing: Product, Price, Place, Promotion and People. Our vehicles will always be a critical factor to our success. We are simply going to enhance our market potential by building on our brands at both the umbrella and vehicle line levels.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Brand equity, Brand manager, Strategy
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Adina APĂTĂCHIOAE
 

Financial stability is a feature of the financial system, reflecting its ability to determine an efficient allocation of the resources and to manage financial risk by its own self-regulating mechanisms. Since the condition of financial systems changes over time, due to various shocks that components suffers, financial stability is a dynamic feature, but the system itself is constantly attempting to recover under the action of specific auto regulatory mechanisms. It is generally accepted that central banks play an important role in ensuring financial stability, there are a number of specific features that can help them achieve financial stability. Recent phenomena such as deregulation, globalization, the intensification of innovation, and so on, have supplemented the functions of central banks and at the same time, led to an intensification of links between banking and other large sectors of the financial system: insurance and financial markets.The objective of this article is to present the different views in the literature on the role of the central bank in ensuring financial stability and the new challenges that she must confront in assuming this new mandate. The role of central banks in ensuring financial stability is in the forefront and should be expanded beyond the traditional functions of stability, which determined that monetary and stability policies to converge. Moreover, due to vulnerabilities manifested by the financial markets in recent decades and that capital flows have become more intense, these vulnerabilities may spread rapidly, increasing the fragility of all markets and, for this reason, ensuring financial stability has become a key objective of public policies. Especially, since the stability of financial systems stimulates economic development and improved living standards, the competent authorities pays a particular attention to these issues.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Central banks, Financial stability, Price stability
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Răzvan-Dorin BURZ
 

Despite its frequent use, the notion of performance is rarely explicitly defined, most often, its meaning being considered to be known by default. Studying this issue, we conclude that the performance is either: an excellent result of an action, the result of an action, whether great or not, or the maximum capability. However this is often addressed as a function of two components: efficiency and effectiveness. Taking into account these two components, we propose two analysis matrix reflecting the static and dynamic performance perspective.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Performance, Efficiency, Efficacy
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Elena CHIȚIMUȘ
 

Within the fiscal inspection procedures and financial control undertaken by the Romanian fiscal authorities, a special place and an everyday more increasing share is occupied by the transactions between Romanian companies with affiliated entities. The principle that should stay at the foundation of these transactions is that every agreement of purchase or sale between affiliates should be made at the market price. This paper aims to present methodological aspects regarding transfer pricing and to underline the evolution and the expectations related to this subject in Romania.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Affiliated entities, Transfer pricing, Romanian and international legislation, Methods used in the calculation of transfer pricing
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Vlad FLOREA
 

The paper deals with the issue of logistic management redesigning the distribution branch of petroleum products. It highlights the policy and quality objectives and also the logistics key process in terms of the purpose as well as the activities included within each process. The main lines of actions show that the top management branches direct the overall activity distribution of petroleum products to meet the needs of its customers and other stakeholders through continuous improvement of efficiency, effectiveness of the management system quality and its processes.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Logistic process, Re-engineering, Petroleum
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Florin FRANT
 

The management of an insurance company is based on a whole series of actions, whose finality can be found in obtaining and keeping a balance among the functions of the management, so as to ensure the success of the company on the market: the forecast function (substantiated in forecasts, plans and budgets), the organization function (completed with the achievement of the company objectives), the coordination functions (carried out between a manager and a subordinate or between a manager and several subordinates), the training function and the control function (which imply measuring the results, comparing the achievements, determining the causes that led to deviations, making corrections, etc.). This paper describes a few peculiarities, related to the decision-making process of an insurance company.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Management, Insurance company
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Liliana – Victoria GHERMAN, Camelia VECHIU
 

The economic crisis from the last period significantly affected the business environment. Despite the progress registered by Romania in the last years, there are some important disparities in the field of competitiveness compared to the European Union member states. It is important to have adequate financial resources for the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and to increase the competitiveness.Companies may obtain European funds for investments in order to improve their activities, starting with the production facilities, procurement of IT equipment and modernization of the tourism infrastructure.The general objective of the Sectoral Operational Programme - “The Increase of Economic Competitiveness” (SOP IEC) is to increase the productivity of the Romanian enterprises in order to comply with the European Union principles: long term development and decrease of the disparities.With the support of the European funds it can be reduced the negative impact of the economic crisis.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: European funds, Crisis, Competitiveness, Enterprise, Development
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Izabella KRÁJNIK, Laura OLTEANU
 

The paper has as its reference sphere the specific companies operating in the stock market, in terms of their establishing, organization and operation. We note the highlighting of the evolutionary context, the Romanian accounting system as centralized economy, the operation of management companies of pension funds in our country, based on a critical analysis ; the organization of the management companies of pension funds, through the report: unity-diversity and functioning of the management companies of pension funds between the general and particular.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Management, Accounting, Benefits
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ionel MĂNDESCU
 

Main tool for macroeconomic management - fiscal policy consists in establishing the levels of taxation and spending in order to influence macroeconomic performance. Fiscal policy, promoted by the government authorities of any contemporary state, is directed usually to achieving microeconomic and macroeconomic goals deriving from the roles the state must fulfill in the economy, respectively the allocative role, distributive, regulatory and the stabilizer role. Governmental authorities, through the production and supply of public goods that are financed at the expense of taxes or duties, or on the public debt, affect both individuals’ utility functions and production functions of economic agents in the private sector. At the macroeconomic level, fiscal policy decisions of governmental authorities relating to either public spending or taxation can be directed towards the stimulation of development. Fiscality is a business cost in investment, where the decisions are taken by representatives of the business environment.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Fiscality, Fiscal policy, Economic growth, Profit, Business environment, Operator
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
 

This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Sport marketing, Marketing mix, Market position
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ramona O. NICOLESCU
 

This paper is trying to prove how social normality should start from a prescriptive, judicial reflection of democratic rationality in social-economic relations instead of starting from the generalization of exceptions under the form of normativity.From the point of view of realistic systemic knowledge, “real levels” and “necessary levels”, as well as the rational interaction between them can be determined sufficiently accurate for all social sub-systems, based on present knowledge. The necessary and sufficient condition is that self-regulatory decisions are independent of the speculative groups of the society (i.e. of politics and oligopolies). There are numberless approaches for separating governance from politics but the social power which supports these approaches is still incomparably smaller than the power of those who do not want social normality. Therefore, the study of economy (different economic methods proposed by economists) is relevant for understanding social self-regulation and the role of “social power” in this self-regulation.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Energy, Time, Power, Social power, Social self-regulation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Carmen NISTOR, Monica PUIU
 

Economic globalizations, development of international markets, have led multinational companies to develop their activities worldwide. In this context, they faced different accounting regulations of various countries. Therefore, based on the need for a common framework of accounting regulations, several bodies have started the process of creating a System of International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS). The purpose of this article is to explain how multinational activities (but not only that) have influenced the process of accounting harmonization in Romania and convergence of the national accounting system to International Accounting Framework, by adopting IAS/IFRS.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Multinational groups, National accounting regulations, IAS/IFRS
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Daniela PÎRVU
 

From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, Corporate income tax revenues, Disadvantages, Losses, EU Formula Apportionment, Tax sharing mechanism
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Radu PRODAN, Ioan NAȘCU
 

In the paper the authors present an overview of the main worldwide development directions in the Smart Home solutions, review the Smart Home services, and give recommendations to potential Romanian and foreign investors in the establishment of such services in Romania. The homes and how people live and behave in them have evolved dramatically in the last fifteen years. Today, the authors are able to present a few major trends that revive the Smart Homes: social trends, digital addiction and the fact that global players see the home like the kernel of the digital atmosphere that surrounds us. The purpose was to identify an opportunity today, as these trends have a satisfying maturity degree.Studying various projects, authors were able to estimate that Smart Homes revenues will increase with 8-10 % per year until 2020 in Romania. These estimates include both direct revenues like home automation products/services and indirect revenues like maintenance of the new devices/services.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Smart home, Telecom operator, Smart home service, Home automation
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Dan SERGHIE
 

The directions of research on innovation or on the staging of innovative processes progress have evaluated over time from an innovational perspective constraint within an activity pursued by the entrepreneur (regarded as an entity creating possible and numerous innovative combinations) to an innovational perspective (induced in innovative processes and structures) framed and carried wider within the organizational internal environment, as response triggered and driven by market requirements. Nowadays, innovation is approached from the perspective of development in networks and system organizations. This latest innovation perspective by relating the areas of knowledge from which to reclaim constituent elements of the process, allowed researchers to focus on the study of the sequencing of actions (from generation to design and then to marketing innovation) as a process generated and conducted in networks, communities of innovation in systems and groups of companies or structures such as double helix or triple helix, in which the collaborative paradigm plays a central role. These structures include companies, individuals, universities and public organizations.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Cultural realities, Interorganizational connection networks, Practices, Disruptive innovation, Competence, Open Source
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Bogdan MICU GHILIC, George STANCU
 

Low developed companies do not use ERP solutions for resource management, they don't have CRM systems for tracking customers, online presence is low and consequently they are selling low volumes. Their work does not generate enough capital to buy specialized software and the local community is too small to create open-source software for them.When adapting an open-source enterprise solution, from a certain level of integration, it is necessary to align to the Romanian legislation. For this you need more than a simple translation. For example, in accounting, the Romanian chart of accounts should be used, the local fiscal calendar, the rules of the Romanian legislation and the specific identifiers for Romanian companies. The solution: Open source applications can be localized. A small community cannot create complex system starting from nothing, but they can adapt existing ones already created and used all over the world. Given the individual characteristics of the Romanian market, open source ERP, CM and e-commerce will be integrated by specialized consultancy agency in Romania just as is done in France (Compiere), Spain (Openbravo), Belgium (OpenERP) or the United States (Apache oFBiz). This will not generate license costs for the companies, only the expenses for hardware and implementation consultancy. If we can create a common infrastructure, hardware cost will be waived for cloud SaaS offering, in opposition with the on-premise option.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Open-source, Software enterprise, CRM, ERP, OFBIZ
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Ștefan MATEI
 

Distribution of goods has evolved in two main directions that seem contradictory : on the one hand, the mass distribution was fully developed in terms of distribution facilities, logistics, comfort, and standardization of goods and services, on the other hand, the increased competition and customer loyalty has prompted the development of marketing techniques based on developing long-term relationships between the company and customers. Often this relationship is created and maintained through personalized offers, a unique combination of services and through direct contact with customers.These contradictory trends are reproduced in the distribution and consumption of wine. It is considered to be more than a physical product. From one point of view, the wine is not regarded as a simply physical product. The value of wine increases due to its tradition, trademark, country and region of origin, processing method, as well as the consumer’s knowledge and sensitivity. On the other side, the wine is one of the world’s most popular alcoholic beverages.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Channels and trade marketing, Romanian Wine, Marketing strategy, Direct marketing, Indirect , arketing, Advertising, winegrowing products, International trade markets
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Georgiana SUSMANSCHI
 

Management activity has utility in all socio-economic segments, taking into account the need for continuous professional training of humans, management involvement in the activity of economic entities registered a significant need. What levers should be used and in what direction in order to act effectively? The answer is not unique, but will be made based on economic theory and systematic methodological principles that lead to certain, multiple positive effects on a long-term perspective.Looking at the dynamics of the business environment every manager will set a secondary objective in addition to maximizing the profit of the economic entity, which consist in preparing for any type of change in the market, due to the influence of endogenous or exogenous factors.Internal audit concept is connected to the concept of management, internal audit beingdefined as an attribute of management by many specialists.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Management, Internal audit, Performance
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Sorin-George TOMA, Marin BURCEA, Eugen IRIMIA
 

Since the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, big corporations have evolved into one of the main business organizations of the world. Moreover, large corporations started to dominate many industries in the United States (US). Today, in the globalization era, they have become much more powerful as in the past. The US corporations are major players in the business world and influence our lives. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the first ten largest US corporations by their revenues and profits in the 2011-2012 period. The research type is a literature review.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Corporation, United States, Revenues, Profits
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013
Volume I, SEA - Practical Application Of Science
Issue 1
Maria Mădălina VOINEA
 

An irony of our times may be that, although hundreds of satellites are monitoring the Earth's activity and that the use of informatics has been generalized, allowing the collection, accumulation, transmission and processing of an impressive volume of data – however, the accuracy of the economic-financial data, remains wedded to the demands of reporting of the results and the handling techniques. Despite the many sources of information, however, financial and accounting information, remains the main source reflecting the economic activity and also the results of those activities, as for their own managers, but also for the great diversity of third parties: customers, suppliers, employees, investors, banks, state institutions, etc. Although sometimes regarded as science or art, accountancy, has managed to make world’s biggest economist to have big faith in it. If they don’t understand it, they can easily imagine that accounting as science is very precise, similar to math. In reality, the accounting information is neither simple nor accurate and rarely meets all requirements of the various users.

  • Type: Review article
  • Published on: 20th June, 2013
  • Keywords: Creative accounting, Fraud, Tax evasion
  • Received: 2nd May, 2013
  • Final revision and acceptance: 15th June, 2013